Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Codification of Law in India

Codification of Law in India Douglas C. North in his book Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance discusses the significance of foundations, and how these organizations impact monetary execution. Foundations incorporate both casual rulesâ [1]â like code of behaviors, conventions and customs and formal standards like constitution, laws and property rightsâ [2]â . Individuals for the most part focus just to the conventional guidelines that exist in the general public and the casual standards dont get the consideration and significance that they ought to get. The British in India did likewise. In any case, North contends that these casual principles are likewise significant and they shape the eventual fate of the economy. Establishments as characterized by North are humanly concocted imperatives that structure financial, social and political interaction.â [3]â Section of British in India At the point when the British came to India in 1600s they saw a general public which was not administered by any conventional laws like the Bible (which was viewed as an awesome wellspring of intensity, law and rules for them) which represented the English; however a heterogeneous society where each individual followed their own custom and custom which were shifted. There was no consistency in the practices that were trailed by the individuals. The idea of formal law like being represented by a uniform arrangement of law or a constitution was an outsider idea to the Indians. Kautilya in Arthashastra perceives presence of four wellsprings of law which are dharma (sacred writings), vyavahara (shared understanding), charitra (nearby custom) and rajashasana (state decree). [4] Kautilya says that these were in climbing request and that the state request won over all the sacred writings and standard practices, when a contention would emerge. Essentially even Ashoka and Akbar created la ws which were to be trailed by the subjects yet they never commanded the individuals to adhere to these laws except if their traditions were such in order to prompt public disharmony. Hence, we see that the Indians had total opportunity to rehearse any standard, practice, custom and so on that they satisfied as long as agreement was kept up. At the point when the British remained here as merchants they didn't meddle into these neighborhood customs and rehearses and were least worried about it. At the point when they went to the sub-mainland the political force was frail as the intensity of the Mughal Empire in the middle was devastating, consequently making it simpler for the British to increase political control and make a solid a dependable balance in India. The English gained the focal control however their matchless quality would possibly be perceived by the individuals on the off chance that they would resolve questions, which urged the British to create legal framework in India. The law gave the British nothing not exactly an exhaustive belief system through which to rule.â [5]â The philosophy which was utilized by the British was as Edward Said discusses in his way breaking book Orientalism. [6] They caused the Indians to accept that they were savage, unrefined, in obscurity and in reverse and it was their (British) obligation to make the Indians cultivated, current, and dynamic and bring them edification. There was social authority which existed and the British accepted that they could improve the Indian circumstance. The picture of the savage and offbeat locals who required Christian salvation was intentionally built by the Evangelists.â [7]â Casual Institutions in early India and way reliance At first the British took a stab at regulating the practices, standards, culture and conventions that were predominant in the Indian culture, yet as there was absence of consistency as everybody followed various traditions and customs the British saw the organization as troublesome. James Mill and Thomas Babington Macaulay needed to classify the laws in India and needed to lead a trial and perceive how arranged laws functioned. They needed to make the laws dependent on the head of utilitarianism and needed a code which was symmetric in all partsâ [8]â and which would get consistency. Hence, started Indias move from a casual establishment where associations between parties depended on accepted practices and customs to formal foundations like arranged laws. The locals in India for a considerable length of time had been following their own nearby traditions and usages. [9] The Indians had been going on a way where they were not commanded to keep a specific law or text and were allowed to pick the standard or custom that they needed to follow. Since there were no limitations on them the Indians had total opportunity. The Indians had been on this way for quite a while and hence there was way dependency. [10] This implies that since the Indians had been crossing this way for quite a while taking an elective way would be troublesome and there would be a significant expense for changing the way. Another meaning of way reliance is what expresses that history matters and this influences the potential results in future. [11] The change in way in future becomes troublesome as a result of the expanding returns or constructive feedbackâ [12]â that is gotten on the grounds that it has been being followed for an extensive stretch of tim e by huge number of individuals. With the possibility of the British to get formal standards and to systematize laws there was a move in the foundation from casual to formal. Move in the criminal circle was not troublesome as criminal law was widespread and was to be applied all around on everybody. Warren Hastings concurred with this codification, yet questioned the codification of the individual laws of the Indians as he knew it was hazardous and needed to avoid it. [13] Since the British couldn't force their ideology [14] Hastings concluded that there would be Indian authorities like pandits and maulvis who might enable the English appointed authorities to take choice. Since, the English adjudicators were unconscious of the Indian law, this assistance by the authorities was fundamental for them to choose cases. Reasons prompting shift in foundation from casual to formal The court needed explicit answers for complex issues. The colonizers didn't pay any significance to the current decent variety and would pose inquiries of general principle and the pandits would answer keeping dharma in mind. [15] The answers which the British got were never pair with the inquiries posed, as the pandits and maulvis had never confronted such a circumstance and the appropriate responses contrasted from one pandit to the next; and these answers were then acknowledged as general standard of law and were forced upon the individuals. Distinctive pandits arrived at various resolutions in any event, when the conditions were same since they would allude to various writings or sacred texts as there was finished opportunity to pick the custom that individuals needed to. For instance if an Englishman would request that how transform into a Hindu, the technique or the system told by various pandits would be distinctive as there was nobody specific method of doing it. Accordin gly, there was no consistency. The pandits in India were not an association like the Pope of the congregation. The pandits didn't meddle in the political circle by any means; not at all like the congregation where the Pope would coronate the King and afterward just might he be able to run the show. There were fluctuated customs predominant and each pandit would decipher the content in an alternate manner as there was no single understanding like there was of the Bible. A very much prepared pandit would be in a situation to refer to various versus on specific themes or just those that made a specific point helpful to a particular situation or without a doubt he may communicate his own supposition on the matterâ [16]â but these contrasted significantly from one another. The traditions would change here and there and the British were puzzled at this unique presence of customs. Accordingly, there was no consistency and sureness in the choices given by the pandits and the maulvis. This prompted a question of them by the British and subsequently they chose to systematize the law. Another purpose behind codification of the laws were that they accepted that there was well known interest for such changes; and the mainstream request as indicated by them comprised of gathering of first class Hindus who were a piece of the British managerial structure itself.â [17]â Associations going about as change operators North in his book likewise discusses the presence of associations which are gathering of people headed together for reason to accomplish objectivesâ [18]â and are made to exploit the opportunitiesâ [19]â that the current foundation gives them and afterward either work inside the current establishments or change and modify the current organizations, contingent upon the goal to be accomplished; and henceforth the associations which are made out of the current decision set go about as significant specialists of institutional change.â [20]â At the point when the British understood that organization in India was troublesome due to the non-presence of a specific law they at long last made the striking stride of arranging the individual laws too. Hastings had needed to avoid individual laws as he understood that marriage in India was attached to religion and they had settled on remaining impartial towards the local strict issues and furthermore on the grounds that they felt that there impedance may prompt common violence. [21] But the help of the pandits and maulvis was presently taken a gander at with doubt and subsequently, Hastings chose 11 pandits to classify laws which would then be trailed by everybody. The pandits concocted Vivadarnavasetu which actually implies an extension on the expanse of questions was the first Sanskrit adaptation. Later on these were deciphered in English (with which likewise there were issues which will be managed ahead) under the name of A Code of Gentoo Laws. The significance was completely changed and words like code and law which were never a piece of the first content were currently legitimized. [22] Then again William Jones designated Jagannath Tarkapanchanan, the amazing researcher on all parts of the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Problem Solving Creative Thinking And Decision Making

Critical thinking Creative Thinking And Decision Making Critical thinking is an expertise. Administrators and pioneers invest a lot of their energy taking care of issues and deciding. The idea of the issues can be little, huge, perplexing or straightforward and its the job of the administrator to build up a way to deal with settling the issue. Being confronted with issues regularly brings about individuals getting awkward and apprehensive, attempting to discover an answer quickly without breaking down the issue and searching for somebody to fault. Issues happen each day and can't be gotten away. It ought to be seen as chances to improve frameworks and connections inside associations. The propensity to attempt to discover an answer promptly is one of the major missteps in critical thinking as the arrangement ought to be established toward the finish of the procedure as opposed to toward the start. Utilizing a methodology that worked beforehand can leave you taking care of a similar issue again and again. We are conceived issue solvers and fabricate our certainty when we take care of issues. Having a decent procedure and way to deal with issues can settle them rapidly and viably. 2. Critical thinking and Decision Making Framework Associations battle with naturally similar issues quite a long time after year. The absence of a complete and organized procedure is the purpose behind this disappointment. A sorted out methodology utilizing straightforward standards and a reasonable characterized approach can encourage lasting arrangements. The 7 stage critical thinking process is a compelling critical thinking process that comprises of a succession of segments that fit together. Inside each area, there are different instruments that can be utilized to work through the issue and discover what is truly going on. It is helpful to have such a structure to guarantee, that nothing is ignored. Figure : 7 Step Problem Solving Process 2.1 Define/Identify the Problem Now, individuals respond to what they think the issue is. Rather, we should look to see progressively regarding why we think there is an issue. It is basic to manage the genuine issue and not the side effects. With contribution from yourself as well as other people, a genuine of inquiries on the issue ought to be tended to. Utilize the 5 Ws and a H to gather insights on the issue: a) What would you be able to see that causes the issue b) Where does it happen c) When is it occurring d) Why is it occurring e) With whom is it occurring f) How is it occurring At this stage, a difficult articulation ought to be created and recorded. This will guarantee that you are handling the genuine issue and not a side issue or part of the issue. An issue plainly expressed is a difficult half understood. (Dorothea Brande). Composing the announcement will guarantee that everybody can rapidly comprehend what the issue is. The issue can be re-expressed as an objective target. This gives a concentration and course to the issue solvers that is quantifiable. The difficult explanation ought to likewise endeavor to have a deadline distinguished and perused so it tends to be practically handled. 2.2 Analyze the Problem In this phase of the critical thinking, basic contribution from individuals who have seen the issue and who are affected by the issue ought to be assembled and filtered. The issue needs to saw from an assortment of perspectives. A few inquiries ought to be posed to assemble the necessary data : What is the historical backdrop of the issue? To what extent has it existed? How genuine is the issue? What are the reasons for the issue? What are the impacts of the issue? What are the indications of the issue? What strategies does the group as of now have for managing the issue? What are the constraints of those strategies? What amount of opportunity does the group have in social occasion data and endeavoring to take care of the issue? What hindrances shield the group from accomplishing the objective? Could the issue be separated into sub issues for definition and investigation? Understanding where the issue is emerging from, its fit in the present turn of events and what the present situations are, is basic when working out if an answer will work or not. The issue definitions legitimacy can be checked here by venturing back and surveying the present circumstance and what should be changed. The reason for the issue ought to be recorded as far as what's going on, where, when, how, with whom and why. 2.3 Generate Possible Solutions At this stage, the group and yourself ought to produce various potential arrangements. No assessment of the arrangements ought to happen yet rather the exertion ought to be focused on producing however many arrangements as could reasonably be expected. Different procedures can be utilized to tackle issues. 2.3.1 Brainstorming This is a method intended to enable a gathering to produce a few innovative answers for an issue. It is focussed on creating inventive and imaginative arrangements. It is a basic methods for creating countless thoughts from a gathering of individuals in a short space of time. Steps: A gatherings individuals are given an issue and every one of its subtleties. Individuals are urged to concoct whatever number arrangements as could be allowed, setting aside all close to home decisions and assessments. Piggy-easing off another people thought is valuable. All thoughts are recorded so the entire gathering can see them. Thoughts are assessed at another meeting. 2.3.2 Reverse Brainstorming Switch conceptualizing utilizes a mix of the inversion strategy and conceptualizing. This strategy includes beginning with two converse inquiries: a) How might I be able to conceivably cause the issue as opposed to How would I take care of or forestall this issue? b) How might I be able to potentially accomplish the contrary impact instead of How would I accomplish these outcomes? Conceptualize the converse issue to produce switch arrangement thoughts. The thoughts ought to be permitted to stream. No thought ought to be dismissed. The thoughts from the opposite issue should now be turned around for the first issue. 2.4 Analyze the Solutions This stage is the place you examine the different factors about every one of the potential arrangements. The great, the terrible focuses and other important things to every arrangement is noted. There are a few different ways to assess the picked arrangements, and keeping in touch with them all down will assist the gathering with choosing the best answer for the issue. a) Making a T-Chart to Weigh the Pros and Cons of Each Idea The T-graph can be utilized where colleagues record the focal points and weaknesses for every arrangement. This strategy will represent the qualities and shortcomings of every arrangement. b) Develop and Assign Weights to Criteria All the rules individuals are pondering ought to be recorded and weighted. Thusly, all gathering individuals are clear with respect to what rules others are utilizing. c) Prioritize the Criteria The following stage is for the gathering to concur on how significant these rules are according to one another. For instance, is cost the most significant basis, or low opposition by others, and so on. The rules should then be appraised as far as significance. Dole out a number to every rule with the goal that all standards together complete 100. d) Rate Proposed Solutions Using Criteria Utilizing the four to six potential arrangements, score (on a size of 1 to 10) every arrangement against every standard. Rehash this for every rule. Increase this score to the weighting, at that point include the weighted scores for every arrangement. This activity will help think about options dispassionately. 2.5 Select the best Solution The different affecting variables for every conceivable arrangement is looked into and arrangements are kept or disposed of. The gathering ought to be worried about whether the arrangement picked takes care of the issue or just limits it. The arrangement must be functional according to the issue. During this progression, choices should be made. Weighting of the past advance can be utilized to choose the best arrangements. The T-graph can be looked into for points of interest and burdens. The realities and data assembled must be reliable with the proposed arrangement. Arrangements can be decided in favor of and afterward those can be shortlisted. Shortlisted things can be investigated and further refined and decided on. There is a likelihood that no arrangements may work. The issue may should be reexamined or age of arrangements may should be returned to. This perhaps the consequence of an issue definition that isn't very much characterized. 2.6 Develop an Action Plan An activity plan includes recording what is going to next since a potential arrangement is accessible.. This arrangement will understand that the arrangement occurs. The arrangement can comprise of successive errands distinguishing who is doing what, when and the course of events for culmination. The accompanying inquiries ought to be responded in due order regarding the activity plan : What is the general goal and perfect circumstance? What is required so as to arrive from here? What activities should be finished? Who will be liable for each activity? To what extent will each progression take and when would it be a good idea for it to be finished? What is the best arrangement of activities? What preparing is required to guarantee that every individual realizes how to execute each progression in the arrangement? What guidelines would we like to set? What assets are required and by what means will we get them? In what capacity will we measure results? In what capacity will we follow up each progression and who will do it? What checkpoints and achievements ought to be built up? What are the make/break indispensable advances and how might we guarantee they succeed? What could turn out badly and in what capacity will we get around it? Who will this arrangement influence and by what means will it influence them? In what manner can the arrangement be balanced without endangering its outcomes to guarantee the best reaction and effect? By what means will we impart the arrangement to guarantee support? What reactions to change and other human variables are envisioned and in what manner will they be survived? 2.7. Execute the Solution The arrangement can be executed as an undertaking utilizing the activity plan as the benchmark. Errands ought to be checked and provided details regarding. The Gantt outline could be utilized to screen this advancement. Customary gatherings ought to be held with applicable partners to impart progress on the arrangement and prompt if any slippages or blockers exist on the venture. Emergency courses of action can be contrived and I

Monday, August 10, 2020

7 Great Articles That Became Books

7 Great Articles That Became Books This is a guest post from Dan Toller. Dan runs The Electric Typewriter, a collection of the best articles and essays from around the internet. Follow him on Twitter @electric_type. _________________________ A horse that still can still inspire awe, centuries after its death (1). A wizard who uses numbers to battle the evils of superstition and defeat those held back by wilful blindness (2). A young who man heads off into the wilderness in search adventure, never to return (3). These are the stories that grab our imagination and won’t let go, the ones that are passed from one generation to the next, subtly shifting as they spread, becoming embellished and mutating with each retelling, until they become myths, leaping from mouth, to ear, to pen, to press, to the dazzling silver screen. And then there are the stories that hold the wisdom of centuries past, apocalyptic tales of empires destroyed by accidents of history (4), or parables that reveal the troubled heart of our relationship with the very soil that sustains us (5). Tales that show how the follies of generations past continue to haunt our present and will be repeated in the future; how we are destined to make the same mistakes as our parents before us, and the children who follow us (6). And then there are the stories we really can’t live without, the ones that remind us of our cruelty and our blindness to other people’s suffering (7). But surely those great stories belong to the distant past, a time of legends when great orators took the stage to speak of long-dead heroes, and we spent long winter nights telling tales of bygone days in hushed voices as we huddled round open fires? Or are those great narrators still among us, holding up a mirror to our world and captivating us with true stories more fabulous than any fiction? When The Electric Typewriter (8) isn’t busy putting together needlessly opaque reading lists, it spends its time collecting the best articles and essays from around the internet (9) for your reading pleasure. 1) Four Good Legs between Us by Laura Hillenbrand   2) The Trading Desk by Michael Lewis   3) Into the Wild by Jon Krakauer 4) Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond   5) 1491 by Charles C. Mann   6) How Not to Talk to Your Kids by Po Bronson   7) Nickel and Dimed by Barbara Ehrenreich   8) The Electric Typewriter 9) 150 Great Articles and Essays (with links to over 750 more!)   _________________________ Sign up for our newsletter to have the best of Book Riot delivered straight to your inbox every two weeks. No spam. We promise. To keep up with Book Riot on a daily basis, follow us on Twitter or like us on Facebook. So much bookish goodnessall day, every day.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Effects Of The Great Depression The Effects On Social...

The Great Depression: The Effects on Social Classes in America Patrick Holland History 11 Ms. Musso and Ms. Roche February 12, 2015 The 1920s was known best for its wealth, parties and free spirits giving it the nickname of the  ¨roaring 20s ¨. Contributing to the the lavish lifestyle of the 1920s, women, known as flappers, challenged gender roles and broke social norms with their outfits and behaviors. New inventions, such as radios and model-T cars became the foundation for the thriving economy. The country s culture had been making huge strides and the economy was on an upward climb. Everything about society in the ‘20s seemed to be flourishing. At a rapid rate, more middle and lower class people began investing massive amounts of money. Borrowing money from bankers to finance the get rich quick hobby these classes were engaging in produced dangerous trends. At the peak of the economy in the 1920’s, warning signs began to present themselves of a future economic decline. Many United States citizens ignored the small signs like a subtle rise in stock prices. As the small signs began to become i ncreasingly more evident, big investors sensed danger and took proper precautions. However, the middle and lower class investors were not savvy enough to predict the crash. Finally, on October 29th, 1929, what is now known as  ¨Black Tuesday ¨, the Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped almost 23 percent and the market lost between $8 billion and $9 billion in value.Show MoreRelatedThe Closing Musical Number Remains A Clear Example Of The Film1488 Words   |  6 PagesThe closing musical number remains a clear example of the films ability to handle the social issues, contradicting the light-hearted narrative prior to it. This number makes up for its lack of integration by evoking strong sympathy for displaced WWI veterans who now face a more intangible enemy in the form of the Depression. It hearkens back to a time when the now ‘forgotten’ men were regarded as heroes and when they understood how to live their lives and, consequently, how to love their women. TheRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1619 Words   |  7 Pageseconomic depression to discrimination. The real source of tension in Maycomb is the ongoing rift between the country folk - poor white farmers who have been â€Å"hit the hardest† by the economic catastrophe and the city folk - merchants and professionals who are desperate to avoid slipping into absolute poverty. Caught in the middle of all this are the innocent characters - Boo Radley, Tom Robinson, and Dolphus Raymond - who are just trying to mind their own business. The Great Depression,which tookRead MoreOnline Courses versus In-Classroom Courses Essay990 Words   |  4 Pagesthe former leaders of the United States of America, Former President George W. Bush proposed and naming it the No Child Left Behind act, following the acronym NCLB. 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Tuesday, May 12, 2020

B. F. Skinner Essay - 1590 Words

B.F. Skinner B.F. Skinner was one of the most influential theorists in modern psychology. His work was very important and has been studied by many for years. Skinner was a very straightforward man and a very educated man. His theories have helped mankind in many ways. He has studied the behavior patterns of many living organisms. Skinner was a well-published writer. His work has been published in many journals. He also has written many books on behaviorism. His most important work was the study of behaviorism. First began by John B. Watson, behaviorism is one of the most widely studied theories today. B.F. Skinner and His Influence in Psychology B.F. Skinner was one of the most famous of the American psychologists. He was†¦show more content†¦He also read about animals. He collected toads, lizards, and snakes. He trained pigeons to do tricks after he saw them performing one year at a fair. Training the pigeons probably was where he got his ideas of operant conditioning. He attended Susquehanna High School just like his mother and father. In his graduating class there were only eight people including him. He was a very intellectual person. He reported that he really enjoyed school. Over the four years in high school Skinner became good at math and reading Latin, but was no good at science. He was always performing physical and chemical experiments while he was at home. His father was a book collector. Skinner always had a good library of books around his house. Skinner recalled the little collection of applied psychology journals that his father had bought. Those books could have been the starting point in his psychology career. Skinner grew up in a very religious family. After high school Skinner went to Hamilton College where he majored in English Literature and minored in Romance Languages. Skinner’s freshman year did not turn out to be what he expected. He felt that the college was pushing him around with unnecessary requirements, such as daily chapel and physical education. Skinner’s college life became better as the years went on. He was very comfortable with college life by his senior year. He and a friend once printed up a poster that said that Charles Chaplin wasShow MoreRelatedEssay on B. F. Skinner802 Words   |  4 PagesB. F. Skinner Burrhus Frederic Skinner, psychologist and behaviorist, was born in Susquhanna, Pennsylvania in 1904 to William Skinner and Grace Burrhus. His father was a lawywer and his mother was a naturally bright woman. Skinner had only one sibling; his brother died at the age of sixteen. Skinner lived most of his life in Susquhanna. He did not leave the house he was born in until he left to go to college. He was raised very close to his grandparents, who had a major impact on his early lifeRead More B. F. Skinner Essay1073 Words   |  5 Pages B. F. Skinner Burris Frederic Skinner was born on March 20th, 1904 in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. His mother, Grace M. Burrhus, was a stenographer and a secretary, in a law office and later in a railroad chief executives office. His father, William A. Skinner, was an attorney, who studied law with another local attorney at a New York Law School. Skinners parents were both good students. His father had bought several sets of books, so there was a lot of reading material their children. SkinnerRead MoreOperant Conditioning by B. F Skinner1580 Words   |  7 Pagesrealizing it, and most of the time, they don’t know why they do them. Certain reinforcements, some positive, and some negative have conditioned their actions and thoughts. In this essay, I chose Burrhus Frederic Skinner who came up with the theory of operant conditioning. B. F. skinner,(March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) is an American psychologist who believed that we do have such a thing as a mind, but that it is simply more productive to study observable behavior rather than internal mentalRead MoreIvan Pavlov, John Watson, And B. F. Skinner1272 Words   |  6 Pagesemotional, and environmental influences as playing roles in how we understand the world. With the rise of learning theories, three main theorists stood out, whose works are still in effect today. These theorists were Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, and B. F. Skinner. The theories created by each of these psychologists are still in effect to this day, and laid the groundwork for modern learning theories. Ivan Pavlov was a Russian psychologist born in the 1800’s. He was mainly influenced by the ideas of PisarevRead MoreThe Theory Of Behavioral Learning Theory901 Words   |  4 PagesB. F. Skinner is one of the top psychologist who invented the radical behaviorism and critical psychiatry. B. F. Skinner believed that behavior is maintained from one condition to another through similar or same consequences across situations. Skinner believed that actions followed by a positive effect tend to be repeated, while actions followed by negative effect were not. I believe the behaviorist theory states that individuals develop certain behavior traits based off of their reaction to certainRead MoreCarl Rogers Vs. F. Skinner : Which Perspective Is The Most Important?1419 Words   |  6 Pages Carl Rogers vs B. F. Skinner – Which Perspective is the Most Important? A long-debated argument in the field of Psychology has been which theory or explanation of human behavior is the most important and the most viable. Is B. F. Skinner’s theory that behavior is the result of man’s response to external stimuli or is Carl Rogers’ theory that man’s behavior is the result of his determination to achieve self-actualization the best explanation? After much research and thought, I will argue in favorRead MorePsychology Should Be About Behavior And Not About An Inner Force994 Words   |  4 Pages B.F. Skinner was a psychologist that seemed to go against what many other psychologists thought about personality. He did not believe in personality. In a way, Skinner has a point about personality not existing because we do change our behavior based on the environment we are in. (Olson Hergenhahn, 2011.) Since there is no proof of a personality, I believe that psychology should be about behavior and not about an inner force. I do not believe a person is consistent across time because if theyRead MoreUnderstanding the Psychologist Called Burrhus Frederick Skinner1190 Words   |  5 PagesAssignment 4 Valerie Rountree Walden University Management in Human and Social Development - MGMT 8010 June 28, 2014 Understanding Burrhus Frederic Skinner B. F. Skinner was one of the most influential of American psychologists. A radical behaviorist, he developed the theory of operant conditioning, the idea that behavior is determined by its consequences, be they reinforcements or punishments, which make it more or unlikely that the behavior will be repeated again, (NNDB, 2014)Read MoreEssay Burrhus Frederic Skinner1132 Words   |  5 PagesBurrhus Frederic Skinner People do on a day to day basis, many actions without realizing it, and most of the time, they don’t know why they do them. Certain reinforcements, some positive, and some negative have conditioned their actions and thoughts. All organisms, including humans, are greatly influenced by the consequences produced by their own behavior. The environment holds the key to most of the changes that occur in the way a person behaves and a human’s own behavior brings consequencesRead MoreBiography of Burrhus Frederic Skinner Essays1329 Words   |  6 PagesBurrhus Frederic Skinner Burrhus Frederic Skinner was born in a small town called Susquehanna, Pennsylvania on March 20, 1904. His dad was a lawyer and his mom was a house wife. Skinner was the typical boy, he enjoyed playing outside and to build things. He created many inventions as a kid. He and a friend made a cabin in the woods and Skinner created a cart with backwards steering. When working for a shoe store he thought of and invention that helped the broom pick up dust. Skinner also invented

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Materials Requirements Planning Free Essays

A material requirement planning is a soft ware based planning and inventory system used in management of manufacturing system. It simultaneously meets three main objectives: plan manufacturing activities, deliver schedules and purchasing activities; it ensures that materials and products are available for production and delivery to customers; it also maintains the lowest levels of inventory. At the same time, it also schedules procedures for production process with several levels of production. We will write a custom essay sample on Materials Requirements Planning or any similar topic only for you Order Now When fed with the information describing the production requirements for finished goods of the system, the structures of the production system and the inventory for each operation, the material requirements planning determines raw materials purchasing and schedules for the   operations (Friedman 1997,pg 16). In business activities, it should be realized that, time is money. Material requirements planning come up with dynamic decision technologies. It acts as a necessary tool for applying to a wider range of managerial decisions successfully whereby time and money are directly related. With increased technology, the normal divisions between manual and intellectual labor are collapsing. This has been due to the fact that many industries are moving towards controlling and mediating work using computerized tools. A greater number of workers are being compelled to conceptualize on a very different level of abstraction than before. Materials requirements planning describes how decision making is done through analyzing three level of workers in a large manufacturing factory. The important issue may not be identification of which should or can learn the system but how learning occurs. The main concern here is to explore how workers ways of thinking and understanding are affected by changes in the nature of work and work place organization. Through application of this new technology in business, the decision making would be very easy because MRP would be doing the critical part of work. What is more important is only to feed the required production information to the material requirements planning. Bill of materials is module that is part of the manufacturing software solutions. It is designed to create and maintain the parts needed in completion of end products. Such includes all sub assemblies, and assemblies and also shipping supplies if required. Bill of materials can be created as products are ordered, designed, build or maintained. In material requirements planning, bill of material describes the part list of components required to complete a saleable end item. BOMs are naturally hierarchical where the top level represents the sub assembly or the end term. Modular Bill of materials defines the component materials, parts, documents and engineering drawings required to complete sub-assembly (Friedman 1997,pg 56). (MPS) Master Production Schedule operates within a single level of the BOM. If the MPS is run on a material, it implies that necessary orders one planned at that certain level.   If any dependant requirements they are placed on the next Bill of materials level down and the process stops.   The master production scheduling is a form of material requirements planning that stresses planning on the parts of products that have great influence on company profits or which dominates the entire process of production through raking critical resources. These items are marked as â€Å"A† parts and are planned with extra attention. The items selected for a separate MPS ran before the MRP ran. The Master Production scheduling ran is conducted without a bill of materials exposed so that the material requirement planning controller can ensure that the master schedule items are planned correctly before the running of the detailed material requirement planning takes place. Once the changes in MPS occurs in any business, loses are bound to be incurred because company relies on this part for entire process of production through critical resources. At the same time, a change in lot size should create a negative impact in the production. Better protection for larger lots can be justified by that, for large lots, the rejecting cost is good where by the cost of accepting bad lots are higher. When the lot size reduces, it then implies that the cost will reduce thus reducing the profits. Case ii. What is the relationship between inventory and MRP? What is the relationship between capacity and MRP? The relationship between inventory and MRP is that, inventory refers to the list of materials and goods or those goods and materials themselves, which are held available by any business. They are held in order to manage and hide the consumer so that the manufacture’s delay is no longer than the delivery delay. They also serve the purpose of easing the effect of imperfections in production process. On the other hand, MRP is a method of effective planning of all resources of any manufacturing organization of company (Friedman 1997, pg 67). The relationship between capacity and MRP is that, capacity is the point of production at which an organization either industry or firm’s average cost or per unit begin to raise due to fixed factors which are land or capital. Its relation with MRP is in that, economically both stress on production where by MRP can be used in improvement of capacity in the firm. Case iii. Why is it important to have MRP reflect what you actually want to build? How can we use information about the material parent/child relationship and pegging in MRP and PAC (Production Activity Control)? Material requirements planning should reflect what is actually indented to be built. This is because it integrates many fields of manufacturing enterprise in to a single entry for planning and control purpose. It builds on closed loop material requirement planning through adoption of feedback principle and extending it to additional areas of the primarily manufacturing related enterprise. Material requirement planning and production activity control are measures used in company’s production which aims at maximization of incomes. The information about the material parent/child relationship can be only be applicable to these measures if at all they are business oriented and aims to improve production. Such a relationship should be large enough for the practices to be carried within the firm otherwise they cannot work in small firms. Case iv. How do set-ups impact capacity planning? How can capacity planning support operational strategies and decision making? Capacity planning is the process that determines the production capacity required by a firm so to sustain the changing demands for its products. When set ups are put in place, they affect the process of capacity planning because at early age, it is very difficult to determine the firms output and its changes in demand. Once a new firm has been set up, it should be given some duration so as to gain establishment to the clients. During this period, capacity planning cannot be applicable to such a firm. Capacity planning can support operational strategies and decision making in an organization through various ways. Because it aims at minimizing the discrepancy, any factors that may lead to failure in the firm are noted (McCarthy 2002, pg 34). Because capacity is increased through introduction of equipment and material, new techniques, increased number of workers and machines, increased number of shifts or acquiring extra production facilities, it is very easy to identify where there is a loophole through use of capacity planning and make the required change in decision making. Case v. In Production Activity Control, why are their multiple ways to prioritize work to be done?   How are they different?   What are their advantages and disadvantages? In production activity control, multiple ways to prioritize work to be done are applied. This is because with increasing concentration on optimizing capacity to planning, drive down costs and controlling shop floor an activity is a must. Production activity control ensures provision of the flexibility to structural standards expectations and quick adjustments to unexpected changes. By display of all work orders currently in the process, and ready to be processed in the work centre, not unless multiple ways are employed to prioritize the work, accuracy cannot be arrived at (McCarthy, pg 89). Production activity control differs form one another through the size of firm being dealt with. For instance the measures employed in a small scale manufacturing enterprise cannot be compared with the ones applied in a large organization. Although they may serve the same purpose their scope is quite different. The advantages of production activity control include that, there is flexibility in re-prioritization on the fly ensured production competition in accordance with customer deadline. There is also quick adjustment to the temporary adverse circumstances which are eliminated. Also there is enjoyed long-term effect of production bottle necks. On the other hand, some of the disadvantages include availability of complete new sales orders of products which demand client within a limited deadline. Case vi. How does variation in performance to anticipated standards of set-up, run and availability of equipment/people impact the schedule, inventory levels, customer service and costs? Once a new set up is established the inventory level definitely goes up so as to meet the requirements for the new customers. In the organization the schedules also has to change so as to manage the large number in the market. The main role of inventory planning is to translate the plan of production in to a detailed component orders. It determined the items to be produced and when such productions should be done. This enables the customers to get what they want at the right time. The inventory program also has a function of recommending order priorities thus making capacity requirements planning easier. It assumes that adequate capacity will be available when needed. Suppliers encounter problems due to schedule instability. As a result suppliers have to react to the unexpected changes in requirements. This problem in turn results to high costs because of increased time. As a result, increasing uncertainties and dynamics in the environment of planning system should react to unexpected developments. The variation in performance to anticipated standards of set up and availability of equipments and people impact the schedule inventory levels, consumer services and costs (McCarthy, pg 132). This happens in that, once new set ups are established definitely the inventory levels should go up so as to meet the demand of new consumers. The schedules should also change in order to be able to handle large number in the market. The customer service should be improved also to have more customers through use of motivations. Work Cited. Friedman L, (1997). The Developmental Psychology of Planning: Why, How, and When Do We Plan? Mahwah. McCarthy B, (2001).Human Performance in Planning and Scheduling. London. How to cite Materials Requirements Planning, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Nine Stages of Divine Vision Essay Example For Students

Nine Stages of Divine Vision Essay Nine Stages of Divine VisionNine stages of life are formed by nine crises that shape our awareness and the way we envision and experience the divine in both our cultural and isolated lives. Out vision of the divine is determined by the unique forms and forces in each stage of our lives. The first stage is the unborn stage of the womb. The first part of the first stage is the unborn womb. Since the womb is almost perfect for our prenatal needs, there is an incomparable experience of Kinesthetic euphoria which is the ideal condition for the realization of bliss. The womb provides for the need before it even suffers the need. The bliss is the idea that self-sufficient awareness that precedes desire and satisfaction, and still haunts after birth has broken the primal serenity. The second part of the first stage is the Lakshm and Vishnu within the comic serpent. The unborn bliss is the first taste of paradise, which we all seek to recover. Each succeeding stage builds upon this infinite awareness adding its own images and forms to its evolving biological, social and psychological experience. Buddha and Jesus both include this idea in their teachings. The next stage is the baby stage of the divine mother. The first part of this stage is the Venus of Laussel. There are many images of her floating around that she is over 20,000 years old. She ruled over human awareness. Her predecessors thought it was simple: just as the human mother creates human life, so the Great Mother of the creation creates all life: plants and animals. By her breasts she nourishes her whole creation. She is the universe. The sun and moon are her eyes. The Milky Way are her breasts. And the earth is her body. Maybe she is still with us when we speak of Mother Nature. Mother Goddess is the first personification of the divine in human form. The second part of the second stage is the Madonna of Mercy. This Divine Goddess can resolve our problems and be with us all the time. She can also satisfy our deepest needs and open us to the heavenly gate of eternal and immortal life. The youth stage of the divine father is the next stage. He is the supreme deity of the Rom ans, named Jupiter. When man seizes the divine power for himself and expels the women from the dignity they hold for millennia as the divine mother. He is the god of thunder, lightning, and mountaintops. Next is the return of the prodigal. The vision of the divine father in a parable by Jesus Christ and in a painting by Rembrandt may be the most sublime revelation of god ever portrayed. The fathers forgiving love is expressed most when her forgives his son for betrayal. Tutankhamon and Ankesenamon is another part of a stage. This royal couple ascended to one of the greatest empires in the ancient world. There was a bit of sadness when King Tut died in his 19th year and his widowed wife could not find someone to remarry. To reach the stage of the couple, each individual must achieve a gender identity of male or female. When kids first discover gender, they tend to see the human race as divided by gender. Yet when they fall in love they really fall in love with a dimension of ones own lost self. In the Annunciation, there are classic forms of the young god and goddess about to consummate the sacred marriage. Through the experience of the couple, they project an image of ecstasy between man and woman, which is the archetype for the union between the soul and God. The man and woman as lovers recover the bliss and ecstasy which the unborn lose in separation from the parents. Another stage is the parent of the divine child. The first part of this is the nativity. This represents the first time that the divine really needs the help and care of the worshippers. At Christmas, the Christ child needs the love of Joseph and Mary, the gifts of the wise men, and the worship of the shepherds. God needs us just as much as we need him. Next is the Krishna on a swing. This is for the Hindu religion. One of the enviable qualities of the child is its ability to see divine with the dream eyes of childhood, which are gradually going to fade away due to adulthood. The divine child c ompletes the divine family which comprises the primal trinity of divine worship. After learning the nine different stages and writing about five of them. I have fully grasped and understood what the nine stages are all about. I have never really thought about the things mentioned in your book, until I read them. This section of your book has made me look at religion from a whole different stand point.