Monday, March 23, 2020

12 Angry Man By Reginald Rose Essays - English-language Films

12 Angry Man By Reginald Rose In the 1950's, Reginald Rose penned his masterpiece, 12 Angry Men. This play introduces us to twelve men of various statures. All of these men are part of the jury who will decide the fate of a young man, who has been accused of murdering his father. At first glance of the testimonies of the witnesses in the trial, the reader, or audience, would probably agree with the norm of the jury on the guilt of the young man. If it weren't for one character in this play, juror No. 8, the deliberations of this trial would have been non-existent. At the end of this story, another juror, No. 3, states his nearly impenetrable opinion, nearly causing a hung jury. After reading or watching this play, the audience has some insight into the fact that despite how unfavourable a persons opinion may be, it is the courage to hold ones ground - sometimes with no other support but from him/herself - that must be recognized as a virtue. This story starts off in the courtroom with the jurors making their way to the deliberation room to talk about and vote on the fate of the accused. A vote is cast to see where they stand with one another on their opinions. The men have various reasons for voting the ways they do. Take, for example, who No. 7 says, "This better be fast. I've got tickets to The Seven Year Itch tonight" , or No. 2 who is "a meek, hesitant man who finds it difficult to maintain any opinions of his own. Easily swayed and usually adopts the opinion of the last person to whom he has spoken", and No. 3 whose son won't talk to him anymore because of his father's bitterness against young people. Some of the other men on the jury believe that "you can't believe a word [people from the slums] say", and since the boy is from the slums, they don't believe his testimony. It is only juror No. 8 who came into the jurors room with a non-bias attitude and who left his personal baggage at the door. He believes that "maybe we owe him a few words", but the others believe that they "don't owe him a thing". The evidence against the accused convinces all the jurors of the boys guilt, except for juror No. 8. The evidence that has convinced the rest of the jurors soon gets analyzed by juror No. 8, which causes the others think twice about their verdict. The reason why juror No. 8 went into such detail about all of the evidence is because "[He] had a peculiar feeling about this trial. Somehow [he] felt that the defense never really conducted a thorough cross-examination. [He] mean[s], [the defense lawyer] was appointed by the court to defend the boy. He hardly seemed interested. Too many questions were left unasked." There were three pieces of evidence that the prosecution brought up, which each on its own, could have probably convinced a jury of the boy's guilt: the obscure knife, and the two witnesses: the old man , the neighbour downstairs, and the woman, the neighbour from across the street. All of these key pieces of evidence were looked over in the jurors room. Nobody but juror No. 8 saw the flaws with each. Take, for example, the rare switch-knife - which we find out to be not-so-rare - that the boy had bought from a local corner store. "The storekeeper identified it and said it was the only one of its kind he had in stock." This testimony had convinced eleven of the jurors until juror No. 8 "swiftly flicks open the blade of a switch-knife and jams it into the table next to the first one (knife). They are exactly alike." After this incident, another juror sided with juror No. 8. Next, the old man's and the woman from across the street's testimonies gets put to their tests. Like juror No. 3 said, "[T]he old man heard the kill yell, ?I'm gonna kill you.' A second later he heard the father's body falling, and he saw the boy running out of the house fifteen seconds after that." With the Jury Room's furniture, juror No. 8 reenacted the scene that would had to have taken place if the old man were to be able to see all he said he did. Juror No. 8 proved that the old man wouldn't have been able to move as quickly

Friday, March 6, 2020

The Relationship Between Terrorism And Tourism Tourism Essays

The Relationship Between Terrorism And Tourism Tourism Essays The Relationship Between Terrorism And Tourism Tourism Essay The Relationship Between Terrorism And Tourism Tourism Essay The words touristry and terrorist act exist at either terminal of a continuum of quality of life. The word touristry means populating merrily, enjoyment, and relaxation, while terrorist act means feeling of decease, devastation, frights and terrors every where. Harmonizing to Beirman ( 2003 ) , tourers are primary concerned with going to the finish fulfilling their desires with minimal complications, menaces to their safety and wellbeing , while on the other manus Gilham ( 2001 ) said, physical menace or serious perturbations to one s programs are suffer to cut down the chances of a tourer finish or tourer house . In past decennary terrorist act has really terrible impacts on the travel and touristry industry than any other industry. The chief ground of this may be because the basic aims of the terrorist groups are to distribute fright, as a consequence the basic safety and security of people threatened. Harmonizing to Abraham Maslow ( 1943 ) the Hierarchy of demands, he said tha t human nature neer satisfied when they have met their basic demands for safety and security. When they are able to fulfill their basic demands, so they attempt to fulfill their ego realization demands such as better life, travel and touristry. Harmonizing to Essner 2003 ) , the psychological impacts are plenty to hold terrible impacts on touristry. The fright of terrorist act is irrational, because in terrorist onslaught opportunities of being killed are really small and security environment has demonstrated its negative impacts on touristry in many top finishs around the universe. Three industries are dominated in twenty-first century, telecommunications, Information engineering and touristry. Harmonizing to World Tourism Organization 2008 study, touristry provides employment over 100 1000000s around the universe. Tourism is an of import economic sector for UK economic system and harmonizing to BBC 2010 study ; domestic and abroad visitants put an ?115 one million millions a twelvemonth in UK economic system. The direct part in the UK economic system was ?52 billion in term of GDP which represent 4 % of UK economic system. Tourism besides provides 1.36 million occupations in 2009 to UK work force which is 4.4 % of entire work force. UK is the universe s 6th largest international touristry finish in term on figure of tourers, but after September 11, 2001 and July 7, 2005 incidents this industry was severely affected. Harmonizing to the LCCI ( 2005 ) study, it has been estimated that the autumn in touristry could be UK touristry industry over ?300 1000000s. In this competitory age, the concern environment is altering dramatically. Terrorism is the biggest menace to touristry industry because travel is susceptible to the incidents of terrorist act. When people travel they ever avoid jeopardies, so for tourers safety is the major concern. During the past decennary particularly after September 11 2001, there are figure of events which have had important negative impacts on UK touristry. The correlativity between terrorist act and touristry is undeniable in the epoch due to industry strength and tourer topographic points are the ideal mark for terrorist to make big sum of economic and societal break in the state. In UK terrorist act can be seen in significant portion, as a consequence of this recoil to the touristry industry. There are figure of definitions of terrorist act, in the universe of Alexander et Al ( 1979 ) terrorist act is a menace or usage of enforcement and bad weather to accomplish a political end by agencies of bullying fri ght, and coercion . In the present universe context, the European Union ( 2001 ) specify the terrorist act relevant to international concern in the undermentioned words. Terrorist offenses are certain condemnable offenses set out in a list comprised mostly of serious offenses against individuals and belongings which, given their nature or context, may earnestly damage a state or an international administration where committed with the purpose of: earnestly intimidating a population ; or unduly obliging a Government or international administration to execute or abstain from executing any act ; or earnestly destabilizing or destructing the cardinal political, constitutional, economic or societal constructions of a state or an international administration . Harmonizing to U.S Department of province ( 2002 ) , terrorist select concerns ( e.g. touristry topographic points ) for onslaught comparison to other marks . The most sort of onslaught is bomb blast, although armed onslaughts and snatch are besides some sorts of terrorist onslaughts. Harmonizing to Council of Foreign Relations ( 2002 ) reported the bulk of victims in terrorist onslaught are civilians . The comparatively big figure of tourers may non fix to confront these sorts of terrorist onslaughts. However the scenario has changed as it was at the clip of terrorist onslaught in 9/11. Kunreuther et Al ( 2003 ) cited that during the yearss of terrorist onslaughts in 9/11 a common feeling came into head of people that it could be me. But with the transition of clip this may give manner to may be it will non me following clip. This sort of behavior is more common now a twenty-four hours in south Asia. But it is a common thought that it is highly easy for terrorist that to assail any where in the universe. Even in low cost and low tech onslaughts, terrorists achieve to interrupt the touristry industry. Terrorism has deep history scientific discipline the cold war but this issue become most outstanding after terrorist onslaughts in September 11 2001. This incident affected the UK and international touristry industry in assorted ways. On one manus the universe touristry industry was affected financially, the other manus it suffers due to legal and security issues. The international touristry industry between states was most earnestly affected due to security and safety concerns and legal issue. Especially UK, US and other developed states were irresistible impulse to protect their district and people at any cost. Tourism industry in UK and USA found themselves staggering financially in the months after the terrorist onslaught on universe Trade Centre, while remainder of the universe touristry industry besides lost 1000000s of dollars. Harmonizing to U.S section of province ( 2002 ) more than 3000 people of different nationalities were killed in the terrorist attacks merely in the Uni ted States in September 11, 2001. The onslaughts were the conspicuous illustration of terrorist act on planetary degree. Harmonizing to the overview of European committee ( 2001 ) this was the one of the major event in the yesteryear decennaries which diversifies the point of view and mentality of people around the universe. Terrorism affects both the long term and short term positions of the concerns around the universe. Czinkota ( 2002 ) cited that terrorist act influenced long term karma of full industries, for illustration touristry, retailing and fabrication industries. After the September 11 terrorist onslaughts many international tourer finishs have severely affected lawfully because states have introduced new Torahs for alien tourers e.g. rigorous visas demands, security cheque and condemnable record cheque etc. UK authorities besides introduced rigorous in-migration jurisprudence for every one who wishes to come UK for touristry in the attempt to forestall farther terrorist onslaughts. The new terrorist Torahs restricted the tourers for freely travel across the UK boundary lines and require by security section to maintain proper path of their activities. The anti terrorist Torahs have made really complicated for touristry industry to carry on its concern activities across the international boundary lines as a consequence many states touristry industries have financially struggled. Another major issue that affect the international touristry industry is security and authorities have to put immense sum of money to better both internal and external security. The security is most of import because terrorist mark hot musca volitanss to accomplish their marks. There is non a huge existing literature which shows the relationship between terrorist act and touristry direction theories, and the deficiency of presence of research literature is perfectly seeable on the relationship between terrorist act and touristry direction, which elaborates constructive techniques for touristry industry in the presence of phenomena of terrorist act. Terrorism has capacity to make ambiance of fright and can be intimidate industry in figure of ways. This menace of terrorist act onslaughts poses a uninterrupted ambiance of hazard for the touristry around the universe. This hazard itself creates extension for intervention of hazard in direction theories. The bulk of direction literature theories adopt term uncertainty as a factor of unpredictable environment which may act upon the public presentation of houses in certain ways. The environment effected by terrorist act besides has a factor of capriciousness in it. This survey is another effort to research and in vestigates impacts of terrorist act on the touristry industry in UK and we will besides discourse different attacks for cut downing and managing the terrorist act menaces. Research purpose and aim: Research Purpose: This purpose of this research is to analyze and research the effects of terrorist act on touristry industry in the United Kingdom after September 11 2001. The 2nd portion of my research is to critically analyze and urge the most appropriate schemes for touristry industry to cover with the terrorist menaces or size up the different strategic positions to avoid and understate the impact of terrorist act on industry. Research Aims: This research has the following single aims: Critically analyse the impact of terrorist act on single organisation and the whole market. Measure the managerial public presentation in organisations, before, during and after the occurrence of the terrorist onslaughts and in unsure environment. Research Questions: What is terrorist act and why terrorist mark concern? What are the effects of terrorist act on concern? How to development scheme for directors or follow a better attacks to cover with above mentioned issues? Abbreviation and nomenclature: Uncertainty: specifically intend the unpredictable environment ; it is unpredictable when following terrorist onslaught will happen. Hazard: average menace ; internal and external menace in concern environment which may impact the productiveness of administration.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Private Equity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Private Equity - Essay Example This process normally involves substantial borrowings and is therefore described as Leveraged buyouts (LBO). Another term which is normally used is â€Å"taken private† which relates to a buyout of a public company and in the process removing it from the stock exchange listing, and therefore transforming it into a private firm (Fraser-Sampson, 2007). Public companies are normally taken private because they have the potential of providing substantial cash flows to investors as the shares are currently undervalued on the stock market. The managers see the potential of â€Å"significantly boosting the firm’s value under private ownership† (Brigham and Ehrhardt 2005, p. 664). This means that companies taken private have the potential of enriching not only the managers who take part in the buyout but the public shareholders who are often offered prices higher than the going market price to sell their shares. Sometimes these shareholders resist but in the end they have to sell their shares because the buyers have enough of the company’s shares to sufficiently influence the takeover of the public company. A large number of public companies have been taken private over the years. A list of some of these companies is provided in Appendix 1 and 2. This list is by no means exhaustive but gives an indication as to the level of activities taking place as it relates to these types of transactions. Arguments for and against public to private transactions A number of arguments have been levelled against public to private transactions. However, there have also been several arguments in its favour. According to Becky (2002, Private vs. Public †¦) â€Å"†¦ in the 1980s a lot of public companies were taken private through a process called a leveraged buyout. That trend may have benefited the entire economy by making the companies a good deal more efficient.† Arguments against public to private transactions Opponents to public companies being taken over by private equity have levelled a number of criticisms against these types of transactions. They believe that some of these private equity managers actually buy public companies, reduce employees, strip the companies of assets and then sell them in secondary buy-out deals. Some also indicate that they are allowed to set off interest payments against income and in the process paying less tax. According to Wiley (2007, p.79) â€Å"some countries are pursuing tougher and tighter ‘thin equity’ tax rules under which it can be difficult to make loan interest fully deductible.† Adding value by increasing earnings multiple Some of the opponents of these types of transactions have indicated that there are many ways the managers of public companies could add value to the company instead of allowing them to go private. These include taking out loans instead of issuing more shares which would be favourable to shareholders as they would see their earnings per share increase. These companies would also pay less tax because the interest on these loans is tax deductible. Increasing the cash flow of the Company Cash flow can be improved through proper management of public companies. There is normally unpredictability in the levels of cash flow in public companies that have been taken private and which therefore need to make regular interest payments. Debt added to private company These purchases normally take place with the use of large amounts of debt, referred to as leveraged

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Context of Workplace Education and Training Essay 2 (3000words)

Context of Workplace Education and Training 2 (3000words) - Essay Example rced to restructure, augment and reshape their economic and labor strategies as investors turned more and more to underdeveloped countries to bring their capital where labor is less costly. The Australian government was compelled to grapple with these new realities as unemployment rate rose from 1.6% in 1970 and peaked at 10.1% in 1992. The workforce had to be retrained to be more competitive. It was in this context that Australia adopted and implemented the Vocational Training and Education system. VET is a system of education incorporated into school curricula and workplace trainings that aims at preparing the student or the worker with the necessary competency that will hone them into competent members of the workforce able to compete in the global arena. The Australian VET is characterized by its nationally unified system, Competency-Based Training (CBT) and Work-Based Learning (WBL). Globalization, the VET and other related concerns have impacted even on established Australian i ndustries like Travelex. Travelex is one of the world’s biggest foreign exchange companies. It was founded by Lloyd Dorfman of London in1976 which initially made a breakthrough into the airport scene in 1986 in Heathrow Airport, an arena used to be monopolized by clearing banks. In 1989, it set up foreign exchange units in Australian airports under permission from the Ansett Airlines, operator of the Australian airport terminal. Today, the company operates in 93 airports around the world, has presence in about 30 countries in the world and employs about 6000 people. Australia is its third biggest market (History of Travelex). The Travelex business has three divisions. The Global Business Payments division accepts commercial and personal clients’ requests to service payments in almost all parts of the globe in their preferred currencies. The Retail Division, the largest in the world, which has 700 branches all over the world, sells banknotes and foreign exchange in most currencies

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Analysis Of Human Resource And Scientific Management Management Essay

Analysis Of Human Resource And Scientific Management Management Essay Scientific management is put forward by Taylor in last century. There is no doubt that the scientific once greatly changed the world. It is highly due to this kind of management that the productivity is able to times increase. Plenty of products and services are produced in relative high efficiency, which dramatically enhance the living standard of people. However, tough it still functions well in some industry such as manufactory, it is not quite proper in current business environment. Staffs now require more respects and dignities and the mere money motivation is not enough to effectively motivate staffs to spare no effort in working. Therefore, a new concept of human relations management which concentrates more on human nature rather than machinery characteristics is high valued currently. In effect, this kind of human relations management is widely used instead of scientific management in most great companies even in some companies belong to manufactory industry. This essay is divided into three parts. In the first part, the theory of scientific management and human relations management are illustrated. In the second part, some real examples such as UPS, McDonald, and Google are used to concrete demonstrate the implement of these two theories in real world. The finally is the analysis of these two theories in current business environment. Main Body One: The theory of scientific management and human relations management. The publication of The Principles of Scientific Management which is written by Frederick Winslow Taylor marks the birth of scientific management. This book introduces the best approach to engage business works via scientific measures in that time of around 1911. (Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management, 2012) It successfully converts management to science. In the perspective of Taylor, the primary object of management is to maximize the profits of both employees and employers. The only approach to realize this object is to enhance labor productivity. (Frederick W. Taylor: Master of Scientific Management. 2012)That is to say, each worker should make their determination to do work as much as possible every day. However, the majority of workers in effect consciously do exactly the opposite. Taylor considers the hidden reasons as the following three. First, a false thought that a full-speed operation will cause plenty of workers unemployed and further cause huge damages to the entire industry is widely spread among workers. Second, there are too many defects on management systems. They directly lead workers take a defense measure of demonization in order to protect their best interests. Third, business is also conducted according to personal experiences, which is definitely in a low efficiency. Therefore, Taylor reckons the scientific management has to take the place of experience principles. Scientific management is set on the base of the accordance of profits of the labor and the capital. He requires each member in the corporation should fully perform the highest efficiency in order to achieve the biggest production and realize the maximum profits. The significant content of scientific management is chiefly divided into two aspects which are operations management and organization management. The operations management includes four parts. First, the first class workers should be selected for operations. In the perspective of Taylor, each individual possesses a distinct talent and capacity. They all potentially become first-class workers as long as suitable positions are available.(Bell, 2012) After careful observation, Taylor finds that the main feature that differs one from the other is willpower rather than intelligence. Second is the practice of work quota. Originally, the workload for a worker is highly decided by the experience of manager. It obviously lacks scientific foundation. Taylor advocates a scientific measure to identify labor work of an individual. That is to select proper and skillful worker and research their labor time and workload in order to set up a reasonable daily workload. This daily workload is so called work quota. Third is the scientific working measure. A reasonable mixture of operational approaches, serviceable tools, labor time, and leisure time should be paid much attention on(Taylor, 1911). Basing on Taylors view, the scientific management means the substitution of scientific knowledge for personal experiences. One of the key measures is to execute standardized management which includes tool standardization, standard operation, standardization of labor movements, and so forth. Only when the standardization is employed, workers are able to use more effective tools and adapt more effective working measures in order to achieve the maximum labor productivity. (Taylor, 1911)Fourth is the implement of incentive salary system. It contains three parts. Above of all, the labor time should be carefully observed and analyzed in order to identify rate of wage. What follows is the differential piece-rate system. That is to say, rate of wage of workers is decided according to the accompli shment of quota. If what a worker real does reaches or even surpasses the quota, a higher rate of wage is offered in order to encourage him. If not, a reduced rate of wage is offered. What is more, sometimes, a yellow card which stands for warning and a punishment of dismissal are employed to motivate workers. At length, an immediate remuneration should be paid. Rewards have to be provided closely after the finish of established work quota. It will dramatically motivate the workers in production and overcame the workers social loafing phenomenon. Another significant aspect of scientific management is organization management. On one hand, the planning functions and executive functions should be separated. Taylor considers that the labor productivity is not only influenced by labor attitude, labor quota, operational measures, and salary systems but also affected by the organization and conduction of administrative staffs. Therefore, Taylor advocates clearly separate planning apart from executives. (Taylor, 1911) A specially department of planning should be established. The chief task of it is to conduct researches in order to obtain evidences of setting the reasonable work quota and operation measures. On the other hand, functional foremanship is essential. System of functional foreman forms according to specific operation processes and a further divided labor. Taylor advocates set eight foremen (Salimath, 2011) instead of original one foreman. Each foreman is expected merely to bear one management function in order to better e ducate and supervise workers to accomplish their work, which is significant to achieve a high production rate. Human relations Management means the conversation management between the enterprise and the employees. This kind of conversation is always flexible, motivate, and not mandatory. The extent of satisfactory and the tendency of supporting the realization of other management objects enhance if human relations management is adapted. The chief duties for managers in human relations management are on one hand to coordinate the relationship between the staffs and the corporation and the relations among staffs; on the other hand to guide to establish a positive and active working environment. The objects of human relations management are chiefly three. First is to coordinate and improve the internal interpersonal relationship in a particular corporation. Whether the general object of the corporation is able to realize or not is highly due to the accordance of personal objects and corporation objects. When an interaction, interwork, mutual support relationship forms, a relative brilliant business psychology atmosphere is created, which definitely will enhance the working efficiency and become the powerful motive power of corporation development. Second, intrinsic value of staffs should be established. The corporation value is acknowledged and shared by the majority of staffs. It is the common belief and the standard to distinguish right from the wrong. The corporation value is gradually formed by a long term education and cultivation. Therefore, the human relationships management continuously cultivates all staffs to hold the common value and perceptions which will further influence the decisions of corporation operation, leadership style, and the entire manner of work for all staffs. Third is an increased powerful cohesion. Each staff will truly reckons himself belong to his company internally. Then staffs will unconsciously pay more attention on the honor, reputations, and interests of the corporation. All in all, the human relations managements concentrate on three aspects: the positive future which is generally identified by its staffs, the constraint system of perfect motivation, and soul contract. Compared with Taylors scientific management, human relations management is more hommization. Main Body Two: The real world examples that relate to scientific management and human relations management. There are two typical real examples in current business environment that Taylors scientific management applies. They are the United Parcel Service and the MacDonald. United Parcel Service hires more than 150 thousand of staffs. And there are about 9 million packages which are expected to transport to all states of the US and 180 (Soupata, 2009) other countries. Therefore, the administering authority of UPS has to systematically educate their staffs in order to achieve their business target of offering the fastest and most convenient delivers in the industry of mail transportation. Basing on the principle of scientific management, a systematic education for staffs will enhance the working efficiency as high as possible. The industrial engineers have carefully observed and analyzed the required time for each driving route. Besides, several standards are set on business activities such as transportation, pause, and delivering. In effect, these industrial engineers records the required time of nearly all possible activities that happens to a staff of UPS when he is in the work. Time for waiting the red light, time for transportation, time for ringing the buzzer, time for crossing the yard, time for going upstairs, time for breaks of drinking the coffee, and even time for the toilet are key data which are input into computers in order to calculate a specific time standard for each driver every day. Drivers have to strictly follow programs set by industrial engineers. If not, the daily task of delivering 130 pieces (Soupata, 2009) of packages will not be able to successfully accomplish. When these drivers drive close to dispatching stations, they loosen the safe belt, sound the horn, close the engine, pull up the emergency brake, and pour the transmission to first gear. These series of actions which are done for preparing leaving after delivering packages are closed related one another. Then the driver will slip to the ground from the driving cab with right arm tucking file folder, left hand grasping packages, and right hand holding the key to car. They take a look at the address written on the package and remember it in mind. A speed of 3 feet per second (Soupata, 2009)is necessary for a driver to fast go to the doors of houses where their clients live. The time of finding for the doorbell is even saved instead by a direct knock on the door. After the delivery, they have to finish the work of entering certain data and information of this deliver on the way back to their cars. Basing on a series of verbs that clearly show how exactly a driver of UPS performs in his work; the labor productivity is to the most degree enhanced. It is closely related to the chief issue of increasing labor productivity for scientific management. What is more, the research conducted by industrial engineers on time and the use of computer in management fully identify the UPS has successfully replace the traditional experiencing management to advanced scientific management. Another typical example of scientific management is McDonald which is the worlds biggest fast food company. It is highly due to the standardization principle of scientific management that McDonald is able to provide a high efficiency and convenient service which is generally view as one of the biggest competition advantages. Actually, McDonald Corporation has conducted a careful motion study to nearly all behaviors such as making hamburgers, frying potato chips, treating costumers, and cleaning tables advanced for the sake of determining the best way to conduct these behaviors. All standards are collected and edited in a handbook which is used to guide behaviors of managers and common staffs of each sub branch. The standards on supply of McDonald chiefly concentrate on four aspects. First, the process of making food is improved. Semi-finished products are heated or fried in high temperature, which reduces the production time of food. Second, the replenishment of drink is improved. Several kinds of beverage outlets are set in order to make sure certain quantity of drink flow to the bottle accurately without the nursing and waiting of working staffs. It definitely increases the speed of servicing for staffs. Third is to make overall managements. Business activities in the surrounding areas are referenced in order to accurately estimate peak crowd and prepare enough staffs advanced. Fourth is enhanced quality of food. Raw materials of McDonald are in the same and strict standard. All kinds of nutrition are scientifically matched. The standard of ordering chiefly concentrates on three aspects. Above of all, special staffs are expected to integrate the order, the collecting of cash and the supplement of food together. All middle steps of information transmitting are eliminated, which both saves the costs and enhances the service efficiency. (Bock, 2009) Besides, the menu is simple. Costumers time is to the biggest degree saved, which unconsciously increase the efficiency of making effective selections for consumers. In addition, several kinds of set meal are provided to enhance the efficiency and expand the sales. Apart from the establishment of all kinds of standards, McDonald always picks up the first class workers. When staffs enter McDonald, a systematically professional training is forced. They are taught to keep a good attitude of servicing. Smiles and a positive and active conversation to consumers are essential. Besides, all kinds of services such as holding a birthday party for children should be provided friendly. What is more essential is the immediate and accurate service, which causes a reduced time on waiting in the queue and getting food. The separation of planning from executives is also stressed by Taylor in his scientific management. On one hand, the planning of McDonald is conducted by corporation headquarters. Headquarters of McDonald is responsible for setting all detailed programs, rules, and regulations for all outlets spreading around the world. On the other hand, managers and common staffs of all sub branches of McDonald should follow the established standardization. It means no innovation is allowed in management and specific tasks. Professional education and training should also be strengthened in order to guarantee the accurate understanding and the thorough implement of rules and regulations. As to human relations management, Google Corporation is a brilliant example. As is known to all, Google is a great Internet company and more and more people are reliable to services provided by Google. Plenty of fresh ideas and services are put forward by Google continuously, which benefit costumer a lot and attract an enhanced quantity of talent people to work for Google. Besides wonderful services, the human relations management is also a significant factor that makes Google world famous. The work tasks in Google are tough and challenging and staffs of Google are almost so called talents. Therefore, they require a better working environment and Google cleverly satisfies them. In Google Corporation, there is no sign of traditional scientific management and even no sign of work. In effect, some people are in delightful and casual conversations, some people are drinking coffee, while some people are even playing table tennis. There seems no one actually on the work which is totally unacceptable according to scientific management. However, the free, innovational, and democratic working atmosphere also creates a high efficiency and a striking productivity. It is so called human relations management. Staffs of Google satisfy with the relaxed external atmosphere. The fully respect of their labor dramatically and effectively motivate them to do their best to accomplish their working objectives. Main Body Three: The analysis of these two theories in current business environment. In my analysis, the Taylors scientific management causes some consideration of optimization of labor for the society. This kind of consideration always continues since then. In current business environment, the human relations management which concentrates more on staffs is more proper. The satisfactory of employees are foundations and preconditions of the satisfactory of customers. The human relations management in human management sets a respect of personal independence and personal dignity (Ratha, 2011) as the precondition of management. The cohesion for staffs to their company is enhanced due to the decentralization of management. The potential capacity, activity, and spirit of innovation are inspired internally deeply in each employee. This truly comfortable mood will unconsciously and continuously encourage staffs to initiate new and excellent performances. Companies that adapts the human relations management in human management are more likely to achieve compared advantages in the aspect of human resource management, which will to a large degree make them achieve a great power in the current bitter market competition. Compared with traditional so called scientific management, human relations management requires more high quality and quick witted staffs. Human relations management focuses on a kind of intelligence operation model rather than an assembly line mode which praised highly by Taylor. Both managers and common staffs are required to get a well knowledge on modern science and master various kinds of techniques in order to be capable to handle with tough problems dependently in the business environment of information. That is to say, staffs under human relations management should have knowledge, master information, adapt to external environment, and be awarded certain power. Both scientific management and human relations management stress on the significant of education and knowledge. However, human relations management concentrates more on an active learning rather than passive learning forced by managers according to scientific management.( Rose,2005) New skills are expected to be effectiv ely learned by staffs actively in order to successfully accomplish certain tough tasks. What is more, intersect education will make staffs under human relations management possess a broad technical ability which is of great use on taking advantages of open information environment. In effect, the core and most precious treasures are skillful staffs themselves for companies which employ human relations management. In addition, human relations management also emphasize on effective motivations. However, compared to scientific management, this kind of motivation is more uneconomic. That is to say, compared with simple money motivation, staffs in human relations management pay more attention on equal treat, mutual respect, awarded power of employing their own wisdom on work, and the self-fulfilling sense of accomplishment. These will bring more satisfaction than merely money brings them. Human relations management indeed has lots of advantages. However, it is not right to one-sided say he human relations management is more proper in current business environment compared to scientific management. In effect, in most companies belong to manufactory industry; the scientific management is widely employed especially in developing or less developed countries where the mechanization is not quite advanced.(Myers, 2011) To some degree, in the perspective of scientific management, staffs are more considered as machines which have a reduced decision-making power. And in the perspective of human relations management, staffs are considered as people who are fully respected. What is more, theoretically, a reduced profit is created by mere human labor compared with innovation and technology advance. Therefore, scientific management will be replaced by human relations management gradually. Conclusion: This essay has carefully introduced the two typical theories which are currently widely employed in todays business environment. They are respectively the scientific management and human relations management. Real examples of UPS and McDonald are employed in order to clearly demonstrate the machinery behaviors for staffs working under this kind of scientific management. No self discovery is available in those companies and each one is able to be replaced. All these are quite easily to arouse negative motions of staffs even though they are forced to hang a smile on their face when services are provided. However, the Google who adapts the human relations management represents the model of future enterprises. Human relations management makes it easy to display the strengths without constraints, which is one of the significant reasons that lead Google gain a wide reputation. As the technology the economic develops, the human relations management will be adapted by more companies and the implement of Taylors management will be reduced.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Child Prostitution Essay

Chapter 1 Introduction Juvenile prostitution is a great problem and not many people are aware of it. In some cases juvenile prostitution start as a voluntary act but in other cases there are girls who are being kidnap just with the purpose of selling them for sex. Some of these children leave home to escape physical or sexual abuse or neglect. Unfortunately, many end up on the streets. Without legitimate means of support and a safe place to stay, they are often  victimized again through pornography, sexual exploitation, and drugs. Juvenile prostitution could be define as the time in which a teenage under the age of 18 engage in sexual activities in exchange of money, property, or for mainly other reason than satisfy one emotional or sexual needs. When we think of juvenile prostitution we usually think that these girls sell their self for pleasure or because they want to but, the reality is that this crime is increasing to a level that our teenagers are becoming like slaves. Child prostitutes can be any age. The children are most often between 11 and 18 years of age but some may be as young as 18 months. These children usually come from broken homes and are lured by seemingly kind older men who promise them food and shelter. These men then become their pimps and exploit the children for their own financial gain. Child prostitutes are poorly paid if they are paid at all, kept in unsanitary conditions, denied healthcare, and are constantly watched and kept subservient. Child prostitutes are commonly threatened and abused both physically and psychologically. Pimps also use drugs as a tactic. The pimp will invite the child to a party and provide them with their first taste of drugs. The child then becomes hooked and will perform prostitution services in exchange for more of the drug. Alternativly, the pimp may find a child who is already a drug user and promise to feed their fix in exchange for ‘work’. They have multiple sex partners on a daily basis and are bought and sold by exploiters. Many contract diseases such as tubercolosis( TB ) , hepatitis-b, gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, and human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Children are often forced by social structures and individual agents into situations in which adults take advantage of their vulnerability and sexually exploit and abuse them. Structure and agency commonly combine to force a child into commercial sex: for example, the prostitution of a child frequently follows from prior sexual abuse, often in the child’s home. Child prostitution usually takes place in particular environments, such as brothels, bars and clubs, or homes, or particular streets and areas (usually in socially run down places). According to one study, only about 10% of child prostitutes have a pimp and over 45% got into the business through friends. Sometimes it is not organized, but often it is, either on a small scale through individual pimps or on a larger scale through extensive criminal networks. They often  are malnourished and practice poor hygiene, leaving them vulnerable to disease. These children rarely have the chance to experience the simple joys of being a Teenager learning to bond with friends, attending school and graduating from high school. They are robbed of their childhood and thrust into a life of turmoil and danger. It is found in this study that most trafficked children were children from families with difficult economic situations and had little opportunity for schooling or education. It is very common that a majority of them quit schooling to work for their family’s survival. The child may face long-term physical health problems caused by sexual abuse. This may include internal injury and reproductive problems for females. If a child prostitute does get pregnant she is unlikely to carry to full term and the newborn is likely to have developmental setbacks and a high infant mortality rate. If the child does survive, the young mother is unlikely to be able to care for it properly and the child may fall victim to the same problems as the mother in what is termed the chain effect. Child prostitutes are also known to face profound psychological damage. They feel as if they can trust no one and often feel worthless. Psychological trauma is a huge danger of child prostitution and can result in depression, anti-social behaviour, anxiety, dissociation, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Child prostitutes may enagage in self-mutilation and be prone to suicidal tendencies; many child prostitutes do not make it to adulthood. Chapter 2 Prostitution Prostitution is the practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for money, property or services, mainly for reasons other than satisfying one’s own sexual or emotional needs. The term juvenile prostitution is used when prostitutes are minors, under 18 years old. Although the age of majority varies from one country to another, juvenile prostitution is considered illegal in Philippines, as elsewhere in the world. Coleman (1989) defines a prostitute as: a) an individual who repeatedly engages in sexual activity with others who would not otherwise stand in any special relationship; b) expects remuneration in the form of currency or the necessities of life in return for such activities. Prostitution inevitably involves two main groups: prostitututes, the majority of whom are womwn and  their clients, who are almost exclusively men. Often, a third type of protagonist is also involved: the pimp or procurer or any other person who profits from prostitution. In keeping with the general image, pimps can be unscrupulous individuals who profit from and live on the avails of prostitution of women they have seduced into becoming prostitutes. This type of procurer is called a coercive pimp. Pimp can also be drug dealers, the owner of dance bars or escort services or even the spouses of prostitutes. Since the individuals facilitate and even encourage prostitution, they are reffered to as support pimps. Each of them profit from the sexual activities of women in their own particular way. (Coleman, 1989; Caplan, 1984). The Myths The social phenomenon of female juvenile prostitution is a serious problem that is difficult to understand and troublesome to acknowledge. The fact that young girls are finding their way into the complex system of prostitution is often met with disbelief. Many myths and stereotypes exist about prostitution. Without an understanding of these, one cannot fully appreciate the exploitation factors that exist for the juvenile. (Wang, 1984) Myth 1: Prostitution is a natural expression of sexuality and necessity for in a dequate sexual relationships This view supports a sexual myth that men have uncontrollable sexual urges that must be fulfilled. Herein lies a justification for prostitution. The juvenile prostitute is dehumanized by the implication that prostitutes serve a useful purpose as an object for sexual gratification. The reality, as described by our sample of former juvenile prostitutes, is that juvenile prostitutes are often appalled at and damaged by the acts demanded of them. Their participation is often a threat to their physical well-being. The act of prostitution is structured by the desires and fantasies of the customer, which are incongruent with the desires and sensitivities expressed by the young women in this sample. Myth 2: Prostitution is a victimless crime. Prostitution creates a setting whereby crimes against men, women, and children become a commercial enterprise. When a customer uses a juvenile prostitute for his or her own sexual gratification, he or she is committing  the crime of child sexual abuse. It is an assault when he or she forces a prostitute to engage in sadomasochistic sex scenes. When a pimp compels a prostitute to submit to sexual demands as a condition of employment, it is exploitation, sexual harassment, or rape acts that are based on the prostitute’s compliance rather than her consent. The fact that a pimp or customer gives money to a prostitute for submitting to these acts does not alter the fact that child sexual abuse, rape, and/or battery occurs; it merely redefines these crimes as prostitution. Myth 3: Juveniles freely choose prostitution. The following self-reported data on the impact of child exploitation shows that victims of violence can lose their sense of psychological and physical wellbeing. Case histories suggest that a number of juveniles engaged in prostitution grew up in abusive and/or neglectful homes. A fragile self-esteem and limited resources lead some young girls to believe that they had no other choice but to enter the world of prostitution. Myth 4: Prostitution can be an exciting and glamorous life. Cultural mythology about prostitution is built on misinformation and fantasies of sexuality that are promulgated through movies, television, videotapes, and printed material including pornography. These may entice naive young women into prostitution with false promises of glamour and riches. In reality juvenile prostitutes suffer pain, humiliation, and degradation at the hands of their pimps and customers. They are susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies. Myth 5: The system of prostitution offers wealth to the participant. The economics of prostitution are complex. If a juvenile is controlled by a pimp or madam most, if not all, of his or her earnings are turned over to the pimp or madam. If working independently for a house of prostitution a large percentage of his or her earnings are turned back to the house. Their lives are strictly controlled, and their ability to set up independent funds is carefully guarded. Part of the strategy for cont rol ove r their activities is for pimps and madams to keep them economically dependent upon the system of prostitution itself. Any profit is often spent as rapidly  as it is obtained, reinforcing the efforts that go into prostitution. A rapid turnover of â€Å"feel good or look good† money into immediately expendable, positively reinforcing products perpetuates the need for continued participation in prostitution. Chapter 3 The Role of Sexual Abuse Prostitution is frequently alluded to as one of the possible long term effects of the sexual abuse of children (Bagley and King, 1990; Coleman, 1989; McMullen, 1987). While the statistical evidence is contradictory, the incidence of physical and sexual abuse is staggeringly high not only among American prostitutes. Li et al. (1990) review several authors who assert that prostitutes have more often experienced incest and forced intercourse than non-prostitutes. Such claims warrant a detailed investigation into the effects of sexual abuse on the child and its correlation with subsequent prostitution. Consensus on a global definition of sexual abuse remains illusive, but the trend is to regard it as inappropriate sexual involvement between a minor (under 18) and a sexually maturer person (at least 5 years older). Such behaviour is intended to lead to sexual arousal and may range from fondling to intercourse. No single factor determines the psychological impact that sexual abuse has on the child. Rather, the intensity of the child’s traumatisation and the character of the psychological symptoms are influenced by several factors (Bagley and King, 1990; Dubowitz, Black, Harrington and Verschoore, 1993): †¢ The child’s stage of socio-sexual development, temperament and understanding of the social sanctions against such behaviour. Effects will thus depend on the meaning attached to it by the individual child. †¢ The nature of the abusive acts. Penetration, for example, will be more harmful than fondling or mere exhibitionism. †¢ The use of coercion and violence. Non-consensual abuse appears to have a particularly harmful impact on the victim. †¢ The perpetrator’s relationship with child. Abuse by a trusted caretaker leads to more intense emotional conflict for the victim. †¢ The perpetrator’s proximity to the victim. Victims who cannot escape  unwanted situations suffer more deleterious effects. †¢ The absence of familial support. The severely dysfunctional family not only increases the child’s vulnerability to abuse, but causes excessive guilt through unsympathetic reactions and rejection of the victim. †¢ Intrusive negative effects of unwanted abuse is indubitably amplified when the abuse is accompanied by poor nurturance (as is the case with many institutionalised abuse cases) and an unstable home life. Negative effects are also aggravated in cases of incest where the child has assumed an pseudoadult role within the family, since this effectively enmeshes the victim into the family system, prevents the development of normal peer relations and makes termination of the abuse so much more intricate. Children’s reactions to the abuse are diverse and idiosyncratic. Consequently, the evidence regarding the psychologi cal effects of sexual abuse is contradictory. There is little doubt, however, that such premature exposure to sex gives rise to precocious sexuality, arrested psycho-sexual development and a distorted perception of love and affection (Li et al., 1990). Diminished inhibition, disrespect for personal boundaries, inappropriate sexual behaviours and excessive masturbation are also noted (Bagley and King, 1990). Putman, Helmers and Trickett (1993) report increased levels of dissociation among abused and traumatised children, accompanied by heightened aggressive and self destructive behaviour. Short term effects of child sexual abuse include fear, anxiety, guilt, hostility and shame (Bagley and King, 1990; Herrmann, 1989). Negative coping mechanism such as passive submission, repression, identification with the aggressor or anger suppression appear to aggravate behavioural symptoms such as learnt helplessness, depression, sleep and somatic complaints, hyperactivity and sexual acting out. Long term effects include suicidal ideation, hy sterical seizures, confused social relationships, increased violence, promiscuity, truancy and delinquency. Adult survivors of sexual abuse report sexual dysfunction, phobias, neuroticism, anorexia and substance abuse (Bagley and King, 1990). Also reported are post traumatic stress disorder symptoms such as affect disorders and depersonalisation (Dubowitz et al., 1993). Li et al. (1990) point out that many sexually abused individuals do not present with such diffuse reactions and suggest that victims who do react negatively were inherently disturbed before the on set of the abuse. This implies that  pathological reactions are correlationally and not causally connected to sexual abuse. It is, indeed, difficult to separate the noxious effects of the sexual abuse from those of the environment or family scenario. In effect, sexual abuse may simply provides a core around which all other harmful experiences may be organised. Following this argument, it is inappropriate to single out sexual molestation as the root of subsequent deviations. Despite these objections, the many and varied psychological symptoms correlated to sexual abuse point to a strong link between such abuse and subsequent prostitution. Where unwanted sexual contact becomes a focus for the victim, it may lead to runaway behaviour, which is the mediating variable associated with prostitution (Caplan, 1984; Coleman, 1989; McMullen, 1987). The disposition towards prostitution among sexually abused runaways is facilitated by their heightened awareness of sexuality and its usefulness as a means of meeting nonsexual needs. While there is a positive correlation between early sexual experiences and subsequent entry into a life of prostitution, this alone is obviously not sufficient. Other correlations need to be considered to assess their impact on the aetiology of prostitution among juveniles. One such factor which has emerged as a direct precipitating factor is that of running away. Chapter 4 Runaway Behaviour A primary method of procuring a juvenile for prostitution is through the use of feigned friendship and love. Often the prospective pimp will identify and fulfill an unmet need of the target youth. A combination of seduction and intimidation appears to be the most common approach used by pimps to recruit young women into prostitution. In these situations pimps typically frequent areas where juveniles are apt to congregate such as shopping malls, videogame arcades, and bus stations. The initial phase of procurement is essentially an information-gathering mission in which he attempts to identify the youth’s vulnerabilities. The pimp can be friendly or flirtatious, depending on which approach gains the best response. During this initial conversation he encourages her to tell him information about herself that he will subsequently use to seduce her. Is she a runaway? Why? Is she window shopping looking at clothing that she cannot afford? Is she a truant tired of the restrictions of school and her parent’s rules? Does she perceive herself as gawky, unattractive, unpopular? The pimp then uses the information that she naively provides him to tailor his recruitment strategy or â€Å"rap† to meet what he perceives her needs to be. If she is a runaway he will offer her food and shelter and vaguely hint at the possibility of a job. Are her parent s too strict ? He will commi serate with her, tell her she’s too smart, too mature, to have all of those restrictions. Is she lonely? Does she consider herself undesirable? Then he will fawn over her. Pimps then use a combination of flattery and charm, the promise of money, protection, companionship, and intimacy to â€Å"con† a young woman into prostitution. This chapter includes excerpts from four interviews with women who became prostitutes as teenagers and six interviews with men who became pimps. Chapter 5 Substance Abuse A study of 200 street prostitutes documented a high prevalence of alcohol and drug abuse in their family of origin, during the drift into prostitution and as part of prostitution. Additionally, the study documented a high prevalence of substance abuse among the child molesters and rapists of the subjects. The existence of a relationship between substance abuse and prostitution in and of itself does not imply causality. It is not clear whether substance abuse is one of the factors that pushed these women into prostitution (as noted earlier, 55% of the subjects reported being addicted prior to their prostitution involvement) or whether it was prostitution that caused their drug involvement (30% became addicted following and 15% concurrently with their prostitution involvement). Most likely, both prostitution and substance abuse are the behavioral translations of these women’s endless cycles of victimization and severely disturbed backgrounds, as well as an expression of the self -destructive pull, the sense of hopelessness, helplessness, negative self-concept and psychological paralysis reported by almost every subject in the study. (J Psychoactive Drugs. 1982). A strong correlation between some form of substance abuse and prostitution is observed on the streets in different countries.  It has not yet been determined whether the onset of substance abuse precedes prostitution or follows soon after: it can be proposed that the development of drug addiction would undoubtedly create the need for a convenient means, such as prostitution, to pay for the habit; equally true is the premise that drug euphoria is needed by the prostitute to alleviate the degradation and humiliation felt in the act of prostitution. Without a firm knowledge of the chronological sequence, it is not possible to ascertain whether the substance abuse is a cause or an effect of prostitution. Ben-Arie (1985) defines drug abuse as â€Å"the consumption, without medical supervision, of medically useful drugs which alter mood and behaviour †¦ for a purpose other than that for which it is prescribed† or â€Å"the consumption of any mind changing substances which ha ve no legitimate medical or socially acceptable use†. Street prostitutes ostensibly become involved only in those drugs that are freely available on the streets such as dagga (marijuana; tetro-hydrocannabanol), Methaqualone (mandrax imitations or â€Å"buttons†), Welconal (Dipipanone Hydrochloride) and Cocaine, although other substances such as LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide), cough mixture and barbiturates are also abused. Understanding the processes behind the initiation and continuation of drug abuse among children and adolescents is no simple task. Psychological factors contributing to drug dependence include the presence of psychiatric illnesses, retarded emotional development, repressed anger and inability to deal with stress. Further social factors such as negative peer pressure, inconsistent familial relations and social alienation may add to the youth’s disposition towards drug abuse (Coombs and Coombs, 1988; Davies an Coggans, 1991). Glynn and Haenlein (1988) highlight that the development of substance abuse in youths often indicates the presence of poor intra-familial relations, delinquency and delayed emotional development. The majority of dependants initiated usage as an emotionally unstable child who found the euphoria psychologically attractive, and continued the dependency as a means of escape from the unfavourable emotions linked to reality (Du Plessis, unpublished). While typical abuse situations such as sexual molestation, neglect, physical abuse, foster placements or delinquent absconding may lead to substance abuse, more incipient forms of abuse have a similar effect. High socio economic families in which parents do not take responsibility for their child, where there is a lack of  communication, poor discipline and temporal values may increase the child’s 10 receptiveness to drug addiction. Substance abuse is, therefore, a further symptom, along with other behavioural deficits such as delinquency or truancy, of the problems which have disturbed the child’s normal social development from an early age (Sneider, 1986). It is from the combined impact of the child’s negative experiences from which prostitution and substance abuse evolves (Coombs and Coombs, 1988). Chapter 6 Social Support Systems In the discussion so far, the impact of child abuse (particularly sexual molestation), running away and substance abuse have been considered. In each, the importance of the chaotic family environment has been highlighted as important in the aetiology of the deviant behaviour among youth. Children do not become involved in sexual compromise unless under extreme duress or dire physical need. Li et al. (1990) argue that only those children who have been subject to multiple forms of abuse and severely dysfunctional familial structures are more prone to prostitution. McMullen (1987) states that â€Å"of one thing we can be certain – a child who is loved and cared for will have a good self image and is unlikely to enter into a life of prostitution† (p 39). The importance of the family life on the child’s development highlights the intervention of welfare systems as a possible indicator of individuals at higher risk for juvenile prostitution activities. Where the family unit has become irreparably dysfunctional, or stressors on the child have become unbearable, welfare and care organisations are in place to offer assistance and support. Despite this, there are those who do not adequately benefit from the resources available. Admission into care organizations is disruptive on school, friends and family, is stigmatizing and does not always protect the child from further abuse. Corrective action against family instability and sexual abuse, particularly when only partial or not sufficiently followed through, appears to increase the chances of revictimisation (Bagley and King, 1990). The removed child is placed in care where she may again be abused, abscond and then become involved in the network of drugs and prostitution. In fact the experiences gained in these institutions may be invaluable to the youth  in equipping her with the specific skills to survive on the street. The possible link between the failure of welfare agencies and subsequent involvement in teenage prostitution may important in ascertaining which factors lead to the development of such activities and helping to determine which children are at particular risk. SUMMARY In the consideration of the factors precipitating juvenile prostitution, it is important to consider the impact of the individual’s personal life history, relationship with parents and involvement in welfare institutions. From this it may be possible to establish which factors lead to absconding, drug addiction and ultimately prostitution. Child prostitution is a unique form of child abuse that is often hidden from the public eye. It is not just limited to developing countries, child prostitution it is a global issue. These children rarely choose to engage in prostitution services but instead are tricked or lured into the business. Once in the business, the children face traumatic psychological and physical abuse that no person, much less a child, should ever experience. Those children that are lucky enough to escape remain traumatized for the rest of their lives. However, not all child prostitutes are able to escape the business. Many do not survive to adulthood or remain sex workers forever. Chapter 7 Aims This study aims to identify those factors that precipitate child prostitution through an assessment of the demographic and psychographic nature of the juvenile prostitutes. Chapter 8 Methods A non-experimental, or ex post facto, research design will be used to assess the variables leading to juvenile prostitution. Ex post facto designs are used when â€Å"it is not possible to manipulate variables or to assign subjects or conditions at random† (Kerlinger, 1979). The primary characteristic of  non-experimental research is that the independent variables come to the researcher after their effects have been exercised, giving no opportunity for manipulation. Control of extraneous variables is limited. The conclusions are not empirically as strong as with experimental designs since control of variables is limited. For this reason as many variables as possible should be explored so as to limit the number of extraneous variables that may be effecting the dependant variable. Using the ex post facto method, the independent variables will be investigated in youth that are involved in prostitution so as to assess the effects of these in the development of prostitution activities. The research design is open to objection on the grounds that retrospective recollections are subject to distortion, suppression and faulty attributions of cause and effect. In addition, it is questionable whether one can trust the historical accounts of social deviants such as drug addicts and prostitutes. While this may be so, this appears to be a relatively effective means of ascertaining the possible reasons why the youth became exposed and involved in sexual exploitation on the streets. Conclusion Prostitution, sexual exploitation and sex slavery of children and adolescents is an increasing social problem in some developing countries. Child prostitution is linked to poverty, economic development and may be escalated by international tourism. Child prostitution is destructive to life and an affront to human dignity. Professional Psychologists are encouraged to direst their expertise into tackling these issues at the levels of prevention as well as cure, as it appears that child prostitution will continue to increase throughout the Asian Region hand to hand with increased tourism and economic development. Action research needs to lead to social change, the change of attitudes toward women and female children and increased education of family values and the value and dignity of life. Community awareness and viable alternatives for employment must also be considered. Psychologists also need to look at the psychology of the paedophile, the abuser and the exploiter, also the family members who are willing to sell their children to provide a better house, a TV or other  material goods. It is hoped that in the process of development in other Third World and Asian nations that this gross violation of the dignity of the rights of Children can be avoided. Bibliography †¢ Bagley, C., and King, K. (1990). Child Sexual Abuse. London: Tavistock-Routledge. †¢ Coleman, E. (1989). The Development of Male Prostitution Activity Among Gay and Bisexual Adolescents. Journal of Homosexuality, Vol 17 (1-2), p. 131-49. †¢ Caplan, G.M. (1984). The Facts of Life About Teenage Prostitution. Crime and Delinquency, Vol 30, p. 69-74. †¢ Bagley, C., and King, K. (1990). Child Sexual Abuse. London: Tavistock-Routledge. †¢ McMullen R.J. (1987, March). Youth Prostitution: A Balance of Power. Journal of Adolescence. Vol 10, p. 35-43. †¢ Dubowitz, H., Black, M., Harrington, D., and Verschoore, A. (1993). A Follow Up Study of Behaviour Problems Associated with Child Sexual Abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol 17 (6). †¢ Li, C.K., West, D.J., & Woodehouse, T.P. (1990). Children’s Sexual Encounters with Adults. London: Duckworth. †¢ Herrmann, K.J. (1987, November). Children Sexually Exploited for a Profit: a Plea for a New Social W ork Priority. Social Work, Vol 32. †¢ Psychoactive Drugs. 1982. †¢ Putman, F.W., Helmers, K., & Trickett, P.K. (1993). Development, Reliability and Validity of a Child Dissociation Scale. Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol 17 (6).

Friday, January 10, 2020

Succubus Revealed Chapter 22

Flying from Seattle to San Francisco is easy, easier even than going to Las Vegas. It takes less than two hours, and tons of flights run each day. The whole trip should've been simple. I mean, there were days when I'd spent more time in traffic just trying to get from downtown Seattle to the suburbs. But I'd never flown on an airplane as a mortal. I was still determined to get to Seth, so there was no question that I was going to make this flight – only a lot of fear. I sat on the plane, waiting for takeoff, noticing things I'd never paid much attention to before. Were the engines usually that loud? Was that fuel I smelled? Was that a crack in the window, and if so, would the whole thing hold when we were airborne? I'd never done much more than politely watch the flight attendants' safety demo, but this time, I hung on to every detail. I had a lot on the line now – like, my life. An immortal could survive a plane crash. It wouldn't be pretty, but it was possible. Now? Now I faced all the risks the rest of the human world did. My fears were unfounded, of course. The flight was smooth and easy, just as fast as I'd expected. Flying really was the safest form of travel. That hadn't changed. Only my perceptions of the world had. I made the trip white-knuckled and breathed a deep sigh of relief when the plane landed. By the time I'd rented a car and was settled into my hotel room, I still had a couple hours before Seth's signing. My hotel was only a couple of blocks from his store – I'd planned it that way – and there was little for me to do except wait. Wait and obsess. A lot of that time was spent agonizing over my appearance. Even when I could shape-shift, I'd always prided myself on my ability to do my own styling. Of course, when Jerome had been summoned and I'd lost my succubus powers briefly, I'd discovered that I really wasn't quite as adept as I'd believed. I'd been cheating without realizing it all along, making small corrections with my powers. Stripped of them, I'd found all the little details I'd missed with blending eye shadow, straightening my hair, and myriad other grooming tasks. Now was no different. I would never have that guaranteed perfection again. There would always be flaws in my appearance. I was going to start aging. How long until that set in? Staring at myself in the hotel bathroom's mirror, I searched out all the little things I thought could be improved upon and then tried to fix them. When I was finished, I was so frustrated that I didn't know if I'd come close to my previous perfection or not. The only thing I was fairly certain of was that it probably didn't matter. Seth's decision to forgive me wasn't going to have anything to do with how my bangs fell or if my makeup brought out the gold flecks in my green eyes. I showed up ten minutes before Seth's event started, thought it was obvious people had been arriving for some time. A bit of nostalgia for Emerald City hit me as I gazed around and took in the efficient bookstore staff as they worked to accommodate the crowd. A podium had been set up in front of a large seating area, though no chairs were left empty. Staff shifted what furniture they could to improve the view for those of us who were standing, and I had to stop myself from offering to help. I ended up purposely staying near the back of the standing crowd. I could still see the podium and hoped my spot would keep me semiobscured. All around me, excited readers clutched copies of Seth's books, some even carrying huge stacks. Their excitement was electric, and I found myself getting caught up in it when Seth finally emerged to thunderous applause. My heart leaped. How long had it been since we'd last spoken? A week? It felt like an eternity, maybe because I'd pretty much lived one in the trial. He was wearing a Brady Bunch T-shirt, and though it looked like he'd brushed his hair, I could already see parts of it starting to go unruly in that way it had. He didn't appear to have shaved in a couple days, but the scruff looked adorable and added to his carefree writer appearance. I felt a smile spreading on my face as I watched him and was reminded of the first time we'd met, when he'd come to Emerald City for a signing and I hadn't recognized him. â€Å"Hey, everybody,† he said into the microphone, once the applause had quieted. â€Å"Thanks for coming out tonight.† Thinking about that first meeting with him also made me realize how much he had changed in the last year and a half. He would never be entirely comfortable in front of a crowd like this – especially since they kept getting bigger – but he was certainly more at ease than that first meeting. He grinned at their enthusiasm and made eye contact where he could, something he'd had trouble with in the past. There was confidence even in the way he stood and spoke. It made me love him that much more, something I hadn't believed possible. Sometimes he would open by reading aloud from the new book, but this time, he jumped straight into questions. Hands went up everywhere, and I found myself ducking against a shelf as he scanned the audience and called on people. I wasn't quite ready for discovery yet. I just wanted to watch him and drink him in. I was amused that the very first question he was asked was, â€Å"Where do you get your ideas from?† That had been a joke between us, at that first meeting, because it was one of the most common questions he received. I'd commented, back then, that it must get tedious answering the same things, and Seth had told me no. He'd said that the question was always new for the person asking and that he treated it as such. It didn't matter how many times it came up. He took joy in their excitement for the books. More questions came, both broad and specific, and Seth answered them all with friendliness and good humor that his fans loved. A lot of people especially wanted to know about the next book, the last book in his Cady and O'Neill series. My heart grew and grew the more I watched him, and I felt like I was getting away with something by being able to observe him without his knowledge. Our last few encounters hadn't exactly been friendly, and it was a balm to me to observe all the warmth and kindness that had made me fall in love with him. It went by too quickly. I was so caught up in watching and listening to him that I was barely aware of the time flying by. It wasn't until I picked up on the subtle movements of the staff that it hit me that this portion of the event was about to wrap up. They would go into signing soon, and the crowd around me would become a massive line that would take hours to get through. Then what? I was suddenly at a loss. Why had I come here? To see Seth . . . and then? I wasn't sure what. I hadn't had much of a plan, short of the preparations needed to get here. Somehow, I had been thinking that would be enough, but of course it wouldn't be. If I wanted to do something, I had to do it now, before this turned into the machine of signing. My hand went up, and inexplicably, Seth's eyes went instantly to me. I don't know how it happened. Like me, others had realized their chance to ask questions was running out, and eager hands were up everywhere, some waving eagerly in the hopes that they might draw his attention. How I – standing in the back and shorter than most of those around me – pulled it off was a mystery. Maybe it was like the time Erik had used Seth to rescue me from the Oneroi. Maybe after everything that had happened, we were still bound. Seth's eyes widened when he realized it was me, but his hand was already pointing in my direction, giving me permission to speak. He faltered only a little. â€Å"Y-yes?† I felt like the eyes of the world were on me. The eyes of the universe, even. So much rested on the next words out of my mouth. â€Å"Are Cady and O'Neill ever going to get together?† I don't know where it came from. When Seth and I had first met, this was the other common question he and I had discussed, and I had mocked it as well. Surprisingly, no one had asked it tonight, but judging from the intense way everyone turned to Seth, you could tell it was on a lot of people's minds. Those amber brown eyes weighed me heavily, and then he answered my question with a question. â€Å"Do you think they should?† â€Å"Well,† I said, â€Å"they've been through an awful lot together. And if there's only one book left, it kind of seems like they're running out of time.† The ghost of a smile flickered over his lips. â€Å"I suppose you're right.† He thought about it a heartbeat more. â€Å"I don't know if they will. I guess you'll just have to read the next installment.† That was met with disappointed groans, and the bookstore staff used that as an opening to segue into signing and hurry Seth off to a more comfortable table. He watched me a few moments more before he moved, the faint smile still on his face. He looked thoughtful. Meanwhile, my heart was beating in double time. In a daze, I allowed myself to be herded with the others into line, not caring how far back I was. Some of the aches in my ribs and the rest of my body began to nag me, but I forced myself to stay strong and ignore them. It took an hour and a half for me to reach the front, but much like the questions, I barely noticed the passage of time. Only, now it wasn't because I was so enraptured by what I saw. This time, I was simply terrified. I wanted to see Seth . . . but was afraid to. He finished signing for the person in front of me and gave me the same smile he'd had on for everyone else. I supposed he'd had time to prepare himself for me coming through the line and was able to effectively hide his shock at my presence. â€Å"Hi,† he said. I handed him my book without a word. â€Å"You've come a long ways.† â€Å"I'm a pretty big fan,† I said. He smiled and scrawled one of his stock phrases into the book: Thanks for reading! When he finished signing, he gave the book back to me, and I gave him an envelope in return. â€Å"This is for you,† I said. There was nothing that weird about my action. People often gave him gifts and letters. In fact, I could see a small pile of goods sitting on a chair beside him. He accepted them with good grace all the time, but then, they weren't usually from people who had the kind of history we did. He held the envelope for a moment, and I suddenly worried he wasn't going to take it. Then, he set it down and said, â€Å"Thank you.† It went next to him on the table, not on the chair. Unsure what to do now, I murmured my own thanks and then hurried off to let everyone else have their chance with him. Mine was gone. I'd played my cards and wouldn't know for a while if anything would come of it. The envelope had had a number scrawled on one side, and inside was a key to my hotel room. It was a silly, cliched thing to do, but I knew how these types of events worked. If I'd openly asked Seth to meet me somewhere, I would have likely gotten the unwanted attention of the bookstore staff and their security. I knew because I'd hurried a fair number of zealous fans off after book signings myself. At least back in the hotel room, I was able to sit down. I didn't realize until that moment just how much I'd been asking of my battered body to stand for that long. Hugh had been right about one thing: being mortal changed everything. I couldn't shrug off getting hit by a car now the same way I could have as a succubus. My doctor had given me a prescription for Vicodin, but I was pretty sure I didn't want to be strung out on drugs for my grand reunion with Seth. I settled for ibuprofen and began the agonizing process of waiting. I'd actually dozed off when I heard the room's door click open. I sprang up from the bed, only getting half a glance at myself in the mirror before I moved toward the door. Seth entered, freezing when he saw me. The door swung shut behind him, and I too came screeching to a halt, too stunned to move. Part of it was that same wonder and rapture of seeing him, just as it had been in the bookstore. Only, now he was right here, alone in the same room with me. It was almost too much to handle. The rest of my inability to react came from simply forgetting what I'd wanted to say. I'd rehearsed a hundred speeches and apologies earlier, and all of them abandoned me now. I fumbled for something – anything – to say that would fix all of the hurt between us. â€Å"Seth – â€Å" I never got another word out. In the space of that breath, he crossed the distance between us and wrapped his arms around me, nearly lifting me off the ground in a giant hug. â€Å"Thetis,† he breathed against my neck. â€Å"Ow,† I squeaked. He instantly set me down and opened his arms, staring curiously. â€Å"The car? But it's been . . .† Curiosity changed to wonder. â€Å"It's true, isn't it? You're really . . .† â€Å". . . human,† I supplied, catching hold of his hand. Even if that hug had been quite the test of my ribs, I hated to lose all contact with him. After the chasm that had stretched between us recently, even that small touch of his fingers was like magic to me. Seth nodded wonderingly, drinking me in. â€Å"They told me . . . they tried to explain it. I understood, but somehow I just couldn't . . . I just couldn't wrap my mind around it. I'm still not sure I can. You look the same.† â€Å"I got to keep the same body,† I said. â€Å"Parting gift.† â€Å"Yeah, but it's just as perfect . . . just as beautiful. I don't know. I thought as a human you'd look . . . ordinary.† â€Å"Stop,† I said, feeling flustered. I ran a nervous hand over my hair. This conversation wasn't going how I expected. â€Å"I probably have bedhead.† My makeup had probably smudged while I slept too. He grabbed my other hand and – gently – drew me near. â€Å"You look perfect.† I shook my head, still needing to summon one of my wellprepared speeches. â€Å"Seth, I'm so sorry. Sorry for everything that I – â€Å" â€Å"Shh,† he murmured. â€Å"Thetis. Georgina. Letha. It's all right. You have nothing to apologize for.† Now I stared in wonder. â€Å"I have everything to apologize for. What I did to you – â€Å" † – was a lifetime ago,† he said. â€Å"But it was still me,† I argued. â€Å"Still this life.† â€Å"What, and you can't be forgiven for that? For something you did when you were still in your teens?† I wasn't sure how I'd switched from apologizing to trying to condemn myself, but there I was, doing it anyway. â€Å"We were still married. Or, well, I mean . . . I was to him. I broke my vows. It was wrong.† â€Å"And I was wrong – or he was wrong, whatever – to have been so oblivious to how you were feeling. We were both at fault, Georgina. We both screwed up – many times.† Seth released my hands and gently cupped my face in his. â€Å"And I daresay we've paid for it a hundred times over. How long do we have to be punished? Are we beyond forgiveness?† I had to look away then, for fear of tears forming in my eyes. Last year, not long after I'd met Seth, I'd discussed some of these same things with Carter. He'd told me that no one – not even a succubus – was beyond forgiveness and redemption. â€Å"But what you said . . . I hurt you so much. . . .† Seth sighed. â€Å"I know. And I'm sorry. It was all such a shock, the hypnosis . . . I still remember it all, but it's taken on kind of a dreamlike quality now. Like it's something I saw on TV rather than something I experienced. It was all a long time ago, and we've both changed. I was coming to you that night at the bowling alley to talk about it. I was still confused but knew enough to realize I'd acted rashly. Then, when you were hurt, and they told me you could actually die . . .† He trailed off, and I dared a look upward. â€Å"Oh, no. Please don't tell me that this is one of those situations where it took a near-death experience to realize how you felt about me.† â€Å"No,† he said, with one of those small, amused smiles I loved. â€Å"I knew long before that. The injuries of the past will always be a part of me, but I've grown from them – just like you have. You're the same as you've always been . . . and yet you're not. You faced me, even though you wanted to run away. You kept trying to help my family, even when I was telling you to go away. We've both changed . . . both taken the best we could of the bad. I just didn't see it right away.† He sighed. â€Å"Like I said, it was the reason I came that night. Seeing you hurt only drove home what a fool I was. And then when Carter told me what happened . . .† Those warm brown eyes searched my face. â€Å"Is it true? You had a clean getaway and risked it all for me?† I swallowed. â€Å"It wouldn't have been a clean getaway without you.† Seth tipped my head back and kissed me, his lips warm and soft. The sensation swept my body, love and desire both threatening to overwhelm me. There was no more succubus feeding, no more peering into his soul. I no longer knew his thoughts, and I didn't need to. I knew my own, knew that I loved him. And I also suddenly knew with certainty, in that same way all humans deduce such things without that benefit of succubus powers, that he loved me too. â€Å"Is it that easy?† I whispered, when we finally broke apart. â€Å"Kiss and make up?† â€Å"It's as easy as we choose to make it,† he murmured, pressing his forehead to mine. â€Å"At least, this decision is. Nothing's truly easy, Georgina. Love and life . . . they're wonderful, but they're hard. We may mess up again. We have to be strong and decide if we can still go forward, even when things aren't perfect.† â€Å"How'd someone so young get so wise?† I asked. He brushed a lock of hair from my face. â€Å"I learned from this woman who knows a lot about love.† I scoffed. â€Å"Hardly. I think I'm still learning more about it every day.† Seth's lips found mine again, and I forgot my worries for a moment, simply losing myself in him. With as ardent as he'd been earlier, I was kind of surprised when he was the one who stopped the next kiss. â€Å"Easy there,† he said, with a small laugh. â€Å"You feel too good. We don't want to get too carried away.† â€Å"Don't we?† I asked. â€Å"I mean, I gave you my room key, and you went right for me as soon as you came in.† â€Å"Well, yeah,† he agreed, â€Å"but that was before I remembered you were hit by a car a week ago.† I tightened my arms around him and drew him toward the bed. â€Å"I'm still alive, aren't I?† â€Å"Yes,† he admitted, letting himself be drawn along. â€Å"But are you sure you don't want to just wait?† Hugh had said something after booking my flight. Everything changes when you're mortal. You don't know what tomorrow will bring. â€Å"I've waited long enough,† I told Seth, just before kissing him. And that was the moment I knew what it was like to have my soul back. It sounds kind of sappy, I know. But to be able to kiss someone you love when you're fully and completely in control of yourself and know who you are . . . it's exquisite. How we love others is affected by how we love ourselves, and for the first time in a long time, I was whole. I knew who I was and in turn was able to appreciate just how much I loved him. And of course, the whole experience was affected by the fact that I no longer had succubus powers to contend with. I didn't have to worry about stealing his life energy. I didn't have to wrestle with the guilt. I didn't have to split the desires of my heart with my predatory supernatural nature. All I had to do was touch him and exalt in the experience of being together. We fell onto the bed, having a care for my still-bruised body. Strangely, I'd also been recovering from injuries the first time Seth and I had made love. Then too, we'd had to balance our passion with caution. It hadn't been difficult then, and it wasn't difficult now. We peeled each other's clothes away, tossing them into a careless heap on the floor. When Seth saw the bandages around my torso, he gently kissed all around them, his lips softly grazing my hips and breasts. Through some unspoken understanding, I rolled him onto his back so that I could lower myself onto him. I positioned my hips over his, resting my hands on his chest, and slowly brought him into me. We both cried out, from pleasure and also the sheer rightness of being together. He fit like he'd been made for me, and I suddenly wondered if I should have been so quick to always scoff about divine plans. Because surely, if ever there was something that seemed to have been guided by a higher power, it was the crazy path of our relationship . . . one that always kept bringing us back together. Over and over I rode him, overwhelmed almost as much by the way his gaze held mine as I was by the heat spreading through my body. I wanted to stop, to freeze that moment in time, but my human flesh and its desires eventually won out. I increased my pace, taking him harder and deeper until I crossed the edge and could handle no more. Ecstasy shook my body as I came, and a joy so intense I nearly forgot my surroundings flooded me. There was no succubus satisfaction here, only the simple bliss of taking pleasure in the one I loved. Seth came soon after, the look on his face causing me joy of another sort. There was such an easy, unguarded happiness in it, mingled with all his love for me. He hid nothing. It was all there on display, his affection and his bliss. Afterward, we lay in each other's arms, both of us floating in our own emotions as we basked in the experience we'd just had. I could hear Seth's heart beating as I rested against him and was aware of the pounding of my own heart – my mortal, human heart – as well. This was what it was like to truly be alive. â€Å"I'm almost afraid to move or speak,† he said at last. â€Å"Part of me is certain this must be a dream or a spell. I'm afraid I'll ruin it.† â€Å"It's neither,† I said. Then, I reconsidered. â€Å"Well, it might be a dream.† Nyx had taunted me for a long time with her dream-vision, refusing to tell me who the man in it was. When Seth had finally been revealed, I'd been certain she'd lied to me. I hadn't seen how any of that future could become a reality, and yet . . . here I was. â€Å"A dream, huh?† asked Seth. â€Å"Does that mean I'm going to wake up to cold reality soon?† â€Å"No,† I said, snuggling closer. â€Å"Because our dream's come true. The only thing you're going to wake up to from now on is me. For as long as you want me.† â€Å"I want you forever. Is that too long?† I smiled. â€Å"After what we've seen? I'm not sure it's long enough.†